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PRISM: EU Network on Human Factors in the Process Industries. PRISM (Process Industries Safety Management) Network of over 60 organisations from 14 countries Funded by the European Union ‘Framework Programme for Research and Development’ Supported by CEFIC Co-ordinated by EPSC.

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Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

  • PRISM (Process Industries Safety Management)

    • Network of

      • over 60 organisations

      • from 14 countries

    • Funded by the European Union ‘Framework Programme for Research and Development’

    • Supported by CEFIC

    • Co-ordinated by EPSC


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

What Is Human Factors?

Work Practices

- Task and job design

- Context of use

- Organisational structures

-Policies and procedures

User differences

- Age

- Eyesight

- Body size and shape

Special needs

Environment

  • Context

    • Normal

    • Emergency

  • Noise, Heat, Light

Software design

- Allocation of function

- Functional specification

- User interface design

- User help

CARRY OUT TASK

MAKE DECISIONS

MONITOR

LOCATE AND PROCESS

INFORMATION

Evaluation

- User requirements

- Rapid prototyping

- Standards/legislation

Hardware design

- Workstation design

- Input/output devices

- Workplace layout

  • Health & Safety

    • Repetitive Strain Injury

    • Work Related Upper Limb Disorders

Training

- Skills required

- Experience

- Motivation

-Training needs

4


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

why human factors?

Technology

Number

of

Accidents

Procedures

Human

Factors

Time


Estimated number of human errors
Estimated number of “human errors”

100

The diagram shows the attribution of “human errors” as causes, which may be different from the contribution of “human errors” to incidents / accidents.

90

80

70

60

% Human action attributed as cause

50

40

30

20

10

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

Incidents are caused by our behaviour

We react with technical solutions !


Action plan for prism
Action Plan for PRISM

  • Facilitate exchange of knowledge and information

  • Generate knowledge to meet industry needs

  • Establish options available to facilitate information sharing between companies

  • Facilitate knowledge transfer from experts


Prism
PRISM

Focus Groups

Culture and Organisation

Optimising Human Performance

High Demand Situations

Engineering Design


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process


Fg1 topics

Organisational & cultural factors

Team Working

Behaviour based safety

FG1 Topics


Behavioural safety key principles

Programme ownership

Definition of safe and unsafe behaviours

Establishment of a baseline

Training

Observation

Feedback

Reinforcement

Goal-setting

Review

Behavioural safety: key principles


Conditions

Dissatisified with status quo

Visible leadership and commitment

Process to owned by employees

Long term not a quick fix

Integration not substitution or add on

Conditions


Pitfalls
Pitfalls

  • Blame culture

  • Just another initiative

  • “Do as I say not as I do”!

  • Leave it all to the Safety Dept

  • Resources


Exxonmobil safety excellence process results example

3

TRIR Employees + Contractors

TRIR Employees

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1999

2000

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

ExxonMobil Safety Excellence Process Results example

Start SEP


A cautionary tale

Handle

Bolts

A cautionary tale


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process


Fg2 topics
FG2 Topics

Procedures

Training

Task Design

Man machine and human computer interface


Procedures

My procedure will ensure the task is performed correctly

Procedures

I know how to do this task, I don’t need a procedure

Do we need a procedure for each task?


Decision aid
Decision Aid

No Written Instruction required: NWI

Job Aid required e.g checklist/memory aid: JA

Step By Step instruction required: SBS


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

  • PRISM FG3 High Demand Situations

    • cognitive overload

    • emergency response

    • control room layout

    • abnormal situation management

    • use of virtual reality


Why alarm handling
Why alarm handling?

A wide issue about assuring the human response to an alarm

Operators routinely ignore alarm in the plant control room

Operators facing as few as 10 alarms a minute in an emergency will quickly abandon the alarm list to reduce stress. They will find a way to solve the problem without using the alarms.


How to face this problem
How to face this problem?

Implementation of an alarm philosophy

Notify operators of events required more focused attention

Help to prioritise response

Guide operator towards most appropriate response


Benefits
Benefits

  • Easier to interpret alarms for operators

  • Better control of processes

  • Help avoid accidents

“A typical plant can save approximately $3 500 000 per year by providing good control during plant incidents and transition events such as start-ups, feed changes, etc.”


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

We cannot change the Human Condition but we can change the conditions in which humans work.”

James Reason


How to incorporate hf in the design process
How to incorporate HF in the design process?

To take human factors into account as part of the process engineering design process requires the design of:

  • Equipment,

  • Operations,

  • Procedures,

  • Work environments.

    such that they are compatible with the capabilities, limitations and needs of the workers


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

Design solution to address the error causes

Automation

Maintainability and Operability

Designing to reduce

Human Error Precursors

Process Control and Monitoring

Process Operationsand Layout

Work Environment


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

  • PRISM

  • Deliverables

    • Survey of needs of SME’s

    • Application guides

    • Training tools

    • Seminars in different European Countries

    • Internet seminars

    • Networking and sharing of experience



Action plan for industry
Action Plan for Industry

  • Develop an understanding of the basic subject matter of human factors (HF)

  • Develop an understanding of current HF issues in pertinent industry sectors

  • Develop an understanding of current arrangements used to identify & control SHE hazards in your workplace

  • From the basis of the existing systems already in place identify how HF can be incorporated


Prism eu network on human factors in the process industries

11th International SymposiumLoss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process IndustriesLoss Prevention 200431 May - 3 June 2004 * Prague * Czech Republic