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Land Reform in China

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  1. Land Reform in China Since 1950

  2. Transition to Socialism • Before 1949 • Feudal warlords controlled much of the land • Tenancy was prevalent • Introduction of People’s Republic of China • Redistribution of land • Elimination of landlord class

  3. Collectivization • First Stage (Mutual Aid Teams) • Consisted of 5 to 6 households • Peasants encourage to join MATs • Equipment and labor shared only during the busy season • Followed plan similar to Soviets • 40% joined MATs by 1952

  4. Collectivization • Second Stage (Agriculture Producer’s Cooperatives) • Equipment and labor shared permanently • Consisted of entire or part of village • Formed a common land pool • By, 1956 96% of rural families were organized into collectives. • Point system used to determine income

  5. Collectivization • Third Stage • Advanced Cooperatives • Income based according to needs and labor contribution. • Land became property of the cooperative • No longer voluntary • Average of 150 to 200 households

  6. Collectivization • From 1953-1957 grain production increased 3.5% each year. • Dramatic increase in industrial production. • Heavy Industry absorbed 85% of investment. • Only 8% of state investment was towards agriculture. • Learned from the Soviet Union mistakes

  7. Payment System in Collectives • Time-rate method • Based on a combination of observable and unobservable characteristics. • Observable • Age, sex, physical strength, and farming skills • Unobservable • How hard one is working

  8. Rural People’s Communes • Time-rate method • Based on a combination of observable and unobservable characteristics. • Observable • Age, sex, physical strength, and farming skills • Unobservable • How hard one is working

  9. Great Leap Forward • 1958-1960 • Unrealistic production goals • Attempt to move industry to countryside • Food shortages • Caused by inflated production stats • Weather unfavorable 1959-1961

  10. 1960 to 1978 • Balance GLF • Material economic development • Recovery from • Incentives reemerged • Re-introduction of private plots • Importance placed on efficiency

  11. Household Responsibility System • Introduce in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping • Brought collectivization to an end • Restrictions remained on availability of land • Fragmentation • Not as efficient as hoped

  12. Two Land System • First attempted in Pingdu in 1984 • Maintain social equity • Achieve economic efficiency • Total cultivated land divided into two parts • Food Land • Contract Land • By the 1990’s was nationally accepted

  13. Conclusion • Growth was achieved but with many setbacks • Still trying to find an equitable and efficient farming system • The growing economic gap between the rural and urban areas has been causing growing disturbances in the rural areas. What will result in this and what steps should the CCP take to calm the peasants?