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ASSESSING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN A COMMUNITY COLLABORATION FOR THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH VIOLENCE a research proposal b y Aimee Cox Clemson University April 29, 2011. What is the best way to address youth risk factors and problematic behaviors?.

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ASSESSING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN A COMMUNITY COLLABORATION FOR THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH VIOLENCE

a research proposal

by

Aimee Cox

Clemson University

April 29, 2011

what is the best way to address youth risk factors and problematic behaviors
What is the best way to address youth risk factors and problematic behaviors?

According to “America’s Children” in 2008

  • 21.7 per 1,000 births were to females between ages 15-17
  • 19% of children ages 0-17 were living in poverty
  • 12 per 1,000 youth ages 12 -17 were victims of serious violent crimes;
  • 14 per 1,000 youth offenders ages 12 -17 were involved in serious violent crimes
  • 10 per 1,000 reports of child maltreatment were substantiated
  • 22% of children ages 0-17 were living in households classified by USDA as “food insecure”
  • 11% of 12th grade youth reported smoking daily
  • 25% of 12th grade youth reported having five or more alcoholic beverages in a row in a 2-week period
  • 23% of 12th grade youth reported using illicit drugs
what is the best way to address youth risk factors and problematic behaviors1
What is the best way to address youth risk factors and problematic behaviors?

Positive youth development represents a policy perspective for guiding youths’ physical, cognitive and emotional development.

the ecological perspective
The Ecological Perspective
  • Human development occurs within
  • the context of multiple levels
  • of reciprocal influences.
  • Optimal environments for
  • development include an
  • awareness of the multiple contexts
  • that impact development.
community collaboration
Community Collaboration
  • Engagement of more than one organization, agency or group of people
  • Combining human and material resources
  • Pursuit of a common goal that
  • Otherwise would not be attainable by one organization alone
c ommunity c ollaboration continued
Community Collaboration continued…

Community Collaboration Outcomes Match Youth Outcomes (Imm, Kehres, Wandersman, & Chinman, 2006)

  • Competence: increases knowledge and skills to function more effectively
  • Character: accountability & responsibility
  • Confidence: assuredness & self-efficacy
  • Connectedness: social relations built on trust among adults and youth
  • Contribution: participation in school, community, families and organizations
what we don t know the problem
What We Don’t Know:the problem

Community Collaboration in Accordance with PYD Principles

  • Extensive research pertaining to the formation, implementation and outcomes associated with
    • School improvement
    • Parent engagement
    • Prevention of risk factors
    • Youth violence prevention
    • Teen pregnancy prevention
    • Obesity prevention
  • There is not enough evidence of positive youth development principles being utilized in community collaborations.
the proposed study
The Proposed Study

Purpose

To assess the level of positive youth development principles being implemented in a community collaboration for the prevention of youth violence in New Hanover County, North Carolina.

Research Questions

  • What are the collaborating partners’ knowledge, perceptions, opinions and receptivity of the concept of PYD as it relates to their goals and objectives towards the prevention of youth violence?
  • What specific activities and processes being implemented by the collaboration constitute PYD?
  • What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats in regards to collaboratively approaching the prevention of youth violence in accordance with PYD principles
literature review
Literature Review

The Search Institute (2008) reports that in 2003:

  • Among 150,000 6th to 12th grade youth in 202 communities across the U.S.
    • 22% reported perceiving that adults in the community value youth
    • 26% reported perceptions of young people being given useful roles in the community

Gallagher et al. (2005) report:

  • Among 12 characteristics of youth development in 13 pregnancy prevention collaboratives, the two not identified as important were
    • Fostering caring relationships with adults
    • Youth should be involved in all phases of program planning
literature review1
Literature Review
  • Kegler, Young, Marshall, Bui & Rodine(2005)
    • linked positive youth development with a community-based project for the prevention of teen pregnancy in a Vietnamese community
    • found involvement in the collaboration had a positive influence on youth assets and adult views of youth
  • Gallagher, Stanley, Shearer, & Mosca (2005)
    • measured collaborating partners’ perceptions of 12 characteristics necessary to define a youth development approach
    • identified expected outcomes related to youth assets
  • London, Pastor, Servon, Rosner & Wallace (2010)
    • identified four youth outcomes linking community technology center activities with a positive youth development framework
new hanover county blue ribbon commission for the prevention of youth violence
New Hanover County Blue Ribbon Commission for the Prevention of Youth Violence
  • Over 50 individuals representing:
  • Community & Faith-Based Organizations
  • Mental Health & Human Services
  • Office of Juvenile Delinquency
  • City Government
  • Concerned Citizens
  • Schools
methods data collection
Methods: data collection

Mixed Methods Design using Sequential Explanatory Strategy

  • Secondary Data Analysis
  • meeting minutes & attendance records
  • grant proposals & process notes
  • evaluation materials
  • Focus Groups:
  • conducted with action teams to define PYD,
  • identify awareness, perceptions, opinions and receptivity to PYD approach
  • SWOT analysis
  • Self-Administered Survey:
  • closed & open-ended
  • identify org. type & activities
  • perceptions of 12 possible elements of PYD
  • perceptions of youth outcomes
methods survey instrument
Methods: survey instrument
  • Rate perceived importance of 12 possible elements of a positive youth development approach (Gallagher et al., 2005):
    • Increasing specific youth competencies
    • Using youth assets rather than deficits as a program starting point
    • Developing specific opportunities to promote youth strengths
    • Encouraging youth to avoid risk-taking behaviors
    • Developing the internal assets of youth
    • Creating youth-focused programs
    • Fostering caring relationships with adults
    • Training others to understand the goals
    • Offering a wide variety of services at a single location
    • Involving youth in all phases of program planning
    • Implementing youth development media campaigns
methods survey instrument1
Methods: survey instrument

Perceived Likelihood of Expected Youth Outcomes (Gallagher et al., 2005; London et al., 2010)

  • Skill Development
    • Individual youth participants will develop specific skills/competencies
    • Academic achievement will improve for youth
    • Youth risk-taking behaviors will decline
    • Employment rates among youth will increase
  • Relationship Building
    • Youth will be enabled to develop caring, supportive relationships
    • Youth will feel more connected to and involved in schools/community
    • Youth will use agency services more frequently
    • Personal and social needs of youth will be met
  • Youth Voice
    • Youth will become active consumers and demand new community services
  • Civic Engagement
    • More youth will participate in community service activities
methods data analysis
Methods:data analysis

Secondary Data Analysis

  • Information pertaining to positive youth development principles will be identified and categorized.
  • Knowledge gained will guide the creation of guiding questions for focus groups.

Focus Groups: Qualitative Data

  • Transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed for themes and perspectives
  • Knowledge gained will guide the creation of survey instrument

Survey: Quantitative Data

  • Descriptive statistics (i.e.frequencies, means, median, ranking, cross tabulations)
implications
Implications
  • Contribute to the knowledge of types of activities and processes utilized by a community collaboration that constitute positive youth development
  • Further the promotion of a common language in the field of youth development
  • Provide evidence in support of professionalization of the field of youth development
references
References

"America's Children". (2010). America's children in brief: Key national indicators of well-being, 2010. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. Retrieved from http://childstats.gov/pdf/ac2010/ac_10.

Blue Ribbon Commission on Youth Violence. (2008). 2009-2012 strategic action plan Retrieved from https://cfauw.secureweb1.org/media/BRC_Strategic_Plan.pdf

Gallagher, K. M., Stanley, A., Shearer, D., & Mosca, C. (2005). Implementation of youth development programs: Promise and challenges. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, S61-S68. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.05.006

Imm, P. S., Kehres, R., Wandersman, A., & Chinman, M. (2006). Mobilizing communities for positive youth development: Lessons learned from neighborhood groups and community coalitions. In J. E. Rhodes (Ed.), Mobilizing adults for positive youth development: Strategies for closing the gap between beliefs and behaviors. (pp. 137-157). New York, NY US: Springer Science + Business Media. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-06770-008&site=ehost-live

references continued
References continued…

Kegler, M. C., Young, K. H., Marshall, L., Bui, D., & Rodine, S. (2005). Positive youth development linked with prevention in a vietnameseamerican community: Successes, challenges, and lessons learned. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, S69-S79. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.05.005

London, R. A., Pastor, M., Servon, L. J., Rosner, R., & Wallace, A. (2010). The role of community technology centers in promoting youth development. Youth & Society, 42(2), 199-228. doi:10.1177/0044118X09351278

National Research Council & Institute of Medicine. (2002). Chapter 3: Personal and social assets that promote well-being & Chapter 5: Features of positive developmental settings In J. Eccles, & J. Gootman (Eds.), Community programs to promote youth development (pp. 66-85). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Search Institute. (2010). 40 developmental assets for adolescents. Retrieved March 29, 2011, 2011, from http://www.search-institute.org/content/40-developmental-assets-adolescents-ages-12-18

references continued1
References continued…

Thompson, L. S., & Lerner, R. M. (2000). Pursuing policies promoting healthy youth development: The role of university-community collaborations. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 1(1), 68. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.comlogin.aspxdirect=true&db=aph&AN=4607412&site=ehost-live

the beloved community according to martin luther king jr
The Beloved Communityaccording to Martin Luther King, Jr.

“A community inclusive of all people, regardless of race, gender, class, ethnicity…

A community that recognizes people as individuals first, each with a unique set of life experiences that shapes their particular perspectives…

A community where these varied perspectives are brought together in a collective effort to achieve goals for the common good.”