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POLITICAL PARTIES

POLITICAL PARTIES

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POLITICAL PARTIES

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  1. POLITICAL PARTIES Chapter 11

  2. Goal of Political Parties: • TO GET CANDIDATES ELECTED! • To mobilize voters and their funds in an effort to win office • Founding Fathers felt they were unnecessary and feared factions (Federalist No. 10!) • BUT … could our democracy exist without them? • Constitution failed to provide for nomination of candidates in elections so parties have filled in the blank • A “beacon in the fog of politics….” • A group of like-minded individuals seeking control of government & policy making

  3. Five Common Functions of All Political Parties : • Nominate candidates • Run campaigns • Provide a party image • Advocate specific policies • Coordinate policymaking and its implementation • Which function is most important to parties? • Parties are …A “beacon in the fog of politics….” • A group of like-minded individuals seeking control of government & policy making

  4. Are America’s two parties extreme in their differences?

  5. Party Eras in U.S. History • U.S. has typically been a 2 party nation whereas most democratic nations are multi-party with real differences between those parties • Does a “2 party system” mean that there are only 2 parties? • No… means that 2 parties continually win the P and most of seats in Congress • Party eras are typical in U.S. history • Each party era is noted by: • a critical election and • party realignment

  6. First Party Era: 1796-1824Development of Parties • Federalists • Alexander Hamilton • 1st & shortest-lived party • Capitalists / bankers, merchants, etc. • John Adams is only Federalist P • Democratic-Republicans • Jefferson, Madison, Monroe • Agrarian interests • Torn apart by factionalism after Federalists die out

  7. Second Party Era: 1828-1860Rise of the Democrats • Andrew Jackson & Democrats • Common man, farmers, universal male suffrage • Whigs were Anti-Jackson party • Henry Clay, northern industrialists • only 2 Whig Ps who were aging war heroes (William Henry Harrison & Zachary Taylor)

  8. Third Party Era#1: 1860-1896Rise of the Republicans • Anti-slavery party; replace Whigs • Democrats only control South Third Party Era#2: 1896-1932Republican Dominance • William McKinley v. William Jennings Bryan • Gold standard vs. free silver • Industry, urban dominance • “Grand Old Party” – GOP (Thomas Nast)

  9. Fourth Party Era: 1932-1964Democratic Dominance • New Deal Coalition, FDR • City dwellers, immigrants, blue-collar, Jews, Catholics, blacks, southerners • Great Society, LBJ • War on Poverty • Vietnam tore Dems apart & opened door for Republicans in 1968 – Nixon • Democrats have only 3 Ps win since 1964 – Who?

  10. Late 1800s Party Organization –Local Urban Political Machines • PATRONAGE RULED! • What is it? • Another phrase for it? • Urban city machines such as Boss Tweed’s Tammany Ring in NY used to be the primary political party organization • Mayor Daley of Chicago • Last survivor of city machines

  11. Fifth Party Era: 1968-presentDivided GovernmentSouthern Realignment • One party controls one or both houses of Congress, it’s a different party than the P’s party • Nixon, both Bushes, Clinton (by ’94), Obama • South realigning to a GOP stronghold has helped Republicans with majorities in Congress • 1987 GOP: 39 of South’s 116 House seats • 2007 GOP: 78 of South’s 131 House seats • Ticket-splitting declined during the 90s BUT double what it was in the 50s • Reagan made best use of “dealignment” by pulling conservative Democrats over to the Republican Party – “Reagan Democrats”

  12. PartyRealignment • Realignment = a substantial number of voters switching party allegiance & creating a long-term political change • Associated with critical elections • 1896 when Republicans ascended to power • 1932 when Democrats became leading party • Doesn’t have to mean a switch in dominance though and can take place over a number of years • Could have parties becoming equal … after election of 1860 and Civil War Rs and Ds equal in strength • Most recently, conservative southern Ds became conservative southern Rs (started with Nixon’s southern strategy in 1968 but took years) • Do you think another party realignment is possible?

  13. PartyDealignment • Dealignment = a decline in party loyalties that reduces long-term party commitment • From 1937 to present, there has been a rise in the number of independent voters • Fall in support for the Democrats since the 1960s • Straight-ticket voting, nearly universal in the early 1900s, mostly gone now. • Up to 40% split-ticket voting in recent elections • BUT, “independent voters” may not be so independent after all – of 33% who claim to be independents, 11% persistently vote D and 12% consistently vote R

  14. Party Coalitions Today (Figure 8.2)

  15. Political Parties – Structure: • Three major components of Political Parties (3-headed Political Giant): • Party in the Electorate • that means us … the voters! • Party Organization • National, state, and local levels • Party in Government • People in office, the policymakers

  16. Party Structure • Party in the Electorate: • Those who identify with the party • Only about 60% of the public • Voluntarymembership in U.S. • What do you do to join? Any dues? • Recent trends in party affiliation?

  17. Generalizations for Democrats: • Younger • Females; Minorities • Upper East Coast (New England) • West Coast (mostly Democrat) • Generalizations for Republicans: • Generally, higher education levels (BUT…INDEPENDENTS have most college) • Male • South & Midwest

  18. The Meaning of Party • Parties, Voters, and Policy: The Downs Model • Rational-choice theory: Assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, weighing the costs & benefits. Figure 8.1

  19. The Party in the Electorate

  20. Party Affiliation:

  21. Party Structure • Party Organization • Party professionals in national, state, local day-to-day operations whose goal is to select candidates, build platforms & win! • The key organizational unit of the party structure is at the city, county, state levels • National parties are little more than an affiliation of regional entities---lack any real control over them • BUT most Americans define the parties on the basis of their national identities

  22. Local Party Orgs. • Five distinct types of local party organizations have developed: • The machine • Ideological parties • Solidarity Groups • Sponsored parties • Personal followings • Increasingly, local political activists who become nationally known come from interest groups (AFL-CIO, NOW, NEA, etc.)

  23. Party Organization – States: • Each state manages its own party operation • Decentralized & fragmented • 3 Types of State Primaries: • Open • Voters can decide on the day of the election which party’s to vote in • Closed • Only registered party voters can vote • Blanket • All voters – all candidates – can pick some of each party

  24. Party Control in State Governments • Partisan Control of State Governments: 2005 (Figure 8.3)

  25. Think Tanks • Think Tanks are researchers and academics used by the parties as sources of policy ideas • They influence platforms! • Republican Think Tanks: • Heritage Foundation, American Enterprise Institute • Democratic Think Tanks: • Open Society Institute, Center for National Policy • Brookings Institution (1916) – strives to be most non-partisan

  26. Parties at the National Level • National Committee • National Convention held every four years to: • Choose presidential nominee of the party • To prepare/announce the party’s platform

  27. Party Platforms: • Democratic Platform • Views on Economy/Taxes? Healthcare? Environment? Defense? Social Issues? • Republican Platform • Views on Economy/Taxes? Healthcare? Environment? Defense? Social Issues? • Libertarian Platform? • Green Platform?

  28. Party in Government • Those who are elected or appointed to office as members of a political party

  29. Political Parties are Linkage Institutions: • They link input from the public with output from policy makers • Four linkage institutions in U.S.: • Political Parties • Elections • Interest Groups • The Media

  30. Group Factors that Affect Our Political Ideology: • Race/Ethnicity: Affiliations are based on freedom-equality issues and socioeconomic conditions • White-Favor Republican • Black-Overwhelmingly favor Democrats • Hispanic • Overwhelmingly favor Democrats • EXCEPT Cubans • Asian-relatively neutral

  31. Progression of Race and Voting • 15th Amendment (1870) • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • 24th Amendment (1964) • Prohibits a poll tax as qualification to vote • Voting Rights Act (1965) • Prevents states from denying citizens the right to vote based on race. • Helps enforce the 15thAm.

  32. GENDER • The Gender Gap • Differences in political views and voting behavior of men and women • Men tend to favor • Republicans • Conservatives • Women tend to favor • Democrats • Liberals

  33. Differences between Men and Women • Role of Government: Doing too much? • Yes: women (50%); men (66%) • Social Programs: Favor cuts? • Favor: women (47%) men (60%) • Should more be done to expand good, affordable child care, or should it be left to families and individuals? • Do more: women (63%); men (41%) • Should fed government guarantee medical care? • Yes: women (69%) men (58%) • Poverty and homeless-ness important: • One of most imptprobs: wom(63%); men 44% • Should affirmative action be continued or abolished? Abolished: wom 36%, men 52% • Do you think women have equal job opps • No: women 69% men 59%

  34. FAMILY INCOME LEVEL: FAMILY INCOME LEVEL The higher one’s income, the more likely they are to… • Register to vote • Vote • Vote Republican

  35. Effect of Education: The more education one has the more likely they will: • Register to vote • Vote • Vote Democrat • (at least in the beginning) • Participate in various methods

  36. RELIGION • Jewish persons & Black Protestants are generally the most liberal of all religious groups • Catholics • Liberal EXCEPT on social issues • Protestants • Conservative, particularly in South / Bible Belt • Jews • Liberal Democrats!

  37. Regional Factors that Affect Political Ideology: Urban v. Suburbanv. Rural America • POPULATION DENSITY • The more people living in your area, the more democratic your area tends to be • Higher populated cities tend to benefit more from federal spending • More government services are needed in densely populated areas

  38. Region • South • Traditionally votes heavily Republican • Many Christian conservatives • East Coast (Northeast) • Large ethnic mix, heavily unionized, large urban areas • Most liberal region of the country, Democrats • Midwest tends to be a mixture of the two ideologies • Has heavy union activity….Democrats (MI, IL,) • Also has large amount of rural areas/farmers … conservative Republicans (IA, MO…) • West Coast • Traditionally liberal; environmental concerns • Some large urban areas • Getting a bit more of a mixture due to migration patterns

  39. Region • Summary of Voting trends by region • Northeast • Democrat • Midwest • Republican • South • Republican • West • Democrat • Swing States • Florida, Ohio, Pennsylvania

  40. TIPPING • When a group that is becoming more numerous over time grows large enough to change the political balance in a district, state, or country • Immigration is one cause of this phenomenon • MA was a solidly R state until 1928….when D Irish voters became dominant segment of population • From ‘52 to ’92 , CA had consistently supported R candidates for P but changed in ‘92 when it voted for Clinton and no R has won there since….CA became a non-white majority state

  41. VOTER TURNOUT • Was on the decline from 1964 to 2000: • Larger electorate; more mobile • Party dealignment and less party mobilization • Rising apathy and lack of trust in gov’t… WHY? • Rising from 2000 – 2008 (62%) ….. BUT dropped in 2012 (57%) • Higher in P elections though than midterm Congressional elections – why? • Greater media interest generated & more info available about P candidates • More money spent on campaigns • National party conventions

  42. WHY IS VOTER TURNOUT SO LOW Registration Difficulty Extend Voting in Presidential Elections to 2 or 3 days? Reduce Voting Age to 16? Reduce restrictions on convicted felons? Ease absentee voting restrictions? Belief that vote “just doesn’t matter because nothing ever changes”

  43. What is the number one reason people in the United States don’t vote? They are too busy. They are satisfied with their lives. They encounter bad weather while trying to vote. They forget. They don’t have transportation to the polling station.

  44. What is the number one reason people in the United States don’t vote? They are too busy. They are satisfied with their lives. They encounter bad weather while trying to vote. They forget. They don’t have transportation to the polling station.

  45. Analyzing Visuals: Why people Don’t Vote

  46. Which of the following individuals is most likely to vote for the Democratic party? a high income individual a highly educated individual a Protestant an African American a man

  47. Which of the following individuals is most likely to vote for the Democratic party? a high income individual a highly educated individual a Protestant an African American a man