Supervision in Organizations Chapter 1 Defining the Supervisor’s Job
Learning OutcomesAfter reading this chapter, I will be able to: • Explain the difference between supervisors, middle managers, and top managers. • Identify the four functions in the management process; • Describe the four essential supervisory competencies; and • Identify the elements that are necessary to be successful as a supervisor.
Organizations & Their Levels • Organization • A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations. • Common characteristics • Set of Goals (has a purpose) • Structure (structure defines roles of employees/limits work behavior) • People
People Differences • Operatives • People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. • Managers • Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others.
Identifying Managers • First-line managers • Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees • Middle managers • Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management • Top managers • Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members
Organizational Levels Operative Employees: • employees that physically produce an organization’s goods & services • don’t manage or oversee work • Examples: • Assembly Line Worker • UPS Driver • Doctors • Lawyers • Accountants • Engineers
Organizational Levels cont… Top Management: • Group of people responsible for establishing the organization’s overall objectives and developing policies to achieve that objectives. • Examples: • Chief Executive Officer (CEO) • Chairman of the Board • Senior Vice President • Superintendent of Schools • Governor
Organizational Levels cont… Middle Managers: • individuals responsible for establishing and meeting specific goals in their particular department or unit. • Examples: • V.P. for Finance • Director of Sales • Division Manager • Group Manager • Unit Manager • School Principals
Organizational Levels cont… Supervisor (first-level manager): • employed in overseeing skilled and semi-skilled workers (operative employees) in industry, and manage employees in retail sales and in offices. • Examples: • Department Chair • Head Coach • Foreman • Team Leader • Shift Leader/Captain
How Do We Define Management? Management • The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people • Efficiency • Means doing the task correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs • Effectiveness • Means doing the right task; goal attainment
Management Process Activities Management process:planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Management Processes • Planning • Includes defining organizational goals, establishing overall strategy to achieve goals, and developing comprehensive plans to integrate and coordinate activities • Organizing • Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
Management Processes (cont’d) • Leading • Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts • Controlling • The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations
Changing Expectations of Supervisors Roles of Supervisors: • Key Person – serve as the critical communication link in the organization’s chain of authority • Person in the Middle – interact & reconcile the opposing forces & competing expectations from higher management & workers. • Just another Worker – many times excluded from decision making. • Behavioral Specialist – must be able to understand the varied needs of their staff & able to listen, motivate, & lead.
The Transition from Employee to Supervisor Where Do Supervisors Come From? • Supervisory positions are recruited from: • Colleges & Universities • Within the ranks of employees (most common) • Other firms • Reasons for promoting operative employees to Supervisors: • Job knowledge & experience • Familiarity with company policies and procedures • Know the people they will be supervising
The Transition from Employee to Supervisor cont… • Research identified 19 major problems new supervisors experienced in their first year: • Their initial view of the manager as boss was incorrect. (perceived power); • Being unprepared for the demands & ambiguities they would face (simultaneous problems to be solved); • Technical expertise was no longer a determinant of success; • The administrative duties (paperwork); and • Being unprepared for the “people challenges” of their new job.
Do You Really Want to be a Supervisor • Realities of Being a Supervisor • Success is defined differently • Success does not depend on your performance, it depends on the performance of people your supervise. • Long Work Hours • Arrive before operative employees and leave after • Endless Paperwork • Time Cards • Productivity Report • Inventory Report • Pay • Hourly or Sourly???
Supervisory Competencies • Robert Katz identified four critical competencies a supervisor must possess to be successful: • Technical – ability to apply specialized knowledge • Interpersonal – ability to work with, understand, communicate with, & motivate others, both individually & in groups • Conceptual – mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations • Political Competencies – ability to enhance his/her power, build power base, & establish the “right” connections in the organization
Supervisory Competencies cont… • Competencies shift by management level • Technical competence declines in importance as individuals rise in the organization; • Interpersonal competencies are a constant for success, regardless of the level in the organization; and • Conceptual & political competencies increase in importance as managerial responsibilities rise.