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Early Africa: West African Kingdoms and Southern, Central, & East Africa. World History. Early Settlement. Savannas Originated out of Great Rift Valley Hunter-Gatherers After 6000 BC, the Sahara will dry up. People begin to move out to West Africa and Nile River Valley.
Early Africa:West African KingdomsandSouthern, Central, & East Africa World History
Early Settlement • Savannas • Originated out of Great Rift Valley • Hunter-Gatherers • After 6000 BC, the Sahara will dry up. People begin to move out to West Africa and Nile River Valley. • Organized by families • Monotheistic, animism • Iron Age
Bantu Migrations • Bantu origins ~ from West Africa ~ dev. of iron technology allowed for increased food production & population ~ migrated to central & southern Africa in 3 waves btwn. 500 BCE-1500 CE • Bantu Societies ~ economy based on hunting, fishing, & farming ~ most villages contained 5-200 families ~ gender roles clearly defined; matrilineal ~ age grades defined specific responsibilities ~ village council of elders made all decisions
Aksum • Diffusion of Islam into Africa • Kingdom of Aksum-cultural blending between Arabs and Africans • Aksum becomes a major trading center: Adulis • Monotheistic, animistic • Achievements: first to mint their own coins, terrace farming, written language • Christianity declared kingdom’s official religion • Declined due to Islamic invaders
Independent City States ~ each ruled by an emir or sultan w/ an elaborate bureaucracy ~located on the East African coast Indians: spices, rice, and cotton cloth Chinese: porcelain, silk Arabs/Persians: glass, pearls, Islamic culture Europeans: wanted to become a dominant trading power in East Africa The Swahili Coastal Trading States
Geography’s Role in Trade ~ sailors used the monsoons to travel from China to E. Africa ~ large natural harbors could hold the world’s largest ships • Swahili Culture ~ Bantu-speaking Africans converted to Islam & married Muslim traders ~ Swahili language combined Bantu, Arabic, & Indian ~ Architecture, food, dress, farming, and govt. reflected the combination of African & Arabic styles
Trans-Saharan Trade ~ North Africans traded salt for gold ~ West Africans brought gold for salt ~ Ghana used their geographic location to tax both sides of the trade Indigenous Religion ~ one god as creator, lesser gods rule daily life ~ disaster could be avoided by pleasing gods w/ prayer & ritual Ghana: The Kingdom of Gold
Islam ~ tolerance for Muslims, but cities divided by religion ~ many govt. officials converted to Islam • Sources of Ghana’s Unity ~ king had absolute power; acted as sole judge ~ army & nobles enforced king’s rule ~ peasants gave portion of their harvest to support traders • Sources of Ghana’s Strength ~ iron weapons gave army an advantage over neighbors ~ control over gold-salt trade
The Fight for Control of Mali ~ Sundiata had his rule challenged ~ Sundiata defeated the Sossos to claim his throne Mali at its Height ~ under Musa, Mali became twice the size of Ghana ~ Mali powerful for 200 years (13th-15th centuries) The Kingdom of Mali Under Mansa Musa
Pilgrimage ~ a devout Muslim ~ went to Mecca w/ thousands of people & camel loads of gold ~ gave much of the gold away to the poor • Impact of pilgrimage ~ European cartographers began to include Mali on maps ~ Qur’anic schools and Muslim architecture built in Mali, i.e. Timbuktu ~ govt. officials used Arabic
Songhai independence ~ lived under Mali rule for hundreds of years ~ gained independence in 1400s Askia Muhammad ~ devout Muslim ~ declared Islam the official religion of the empire ~ Muslim judges applied Islamic law ~ conquests expanded the empire larger than Mali or Ghana The Songhai Empire
Empire at its Height ~ king supported by a strong central govt. ~ est. a social system 1. founders of the empire 2. free people and soldiers 3. POWs & slaves ~ Became a center of learning for the Muslim world ~ Timbuktu’s university attracted scholars from around the world & translated ancient works into Arabic
Al-Mansur: Sultan of Morocco ~ wanted to control source of gold and salt ~ commanded army equipped w/ muskets Seizure of the Salt mines ~ musketeers seized mines at Taghaza ~ Songhai’s leaders forbid their people to trade there ~ Al-Mansur retaliated by planning an attack on Gao Morocco Conquest of Songhai
Moroccan attack on Gao ~ 4k musketeers vs. 118k Songhai warriors ~ Moroccan weapons enabled victory ~ Songhai surrendered & paid tribute in gold and slaves • Effects of the Conquest ~ political unity kept by previous empires was destroyed ~ gold-salt trade disrupted ~ farm land fell to waste ~ cultural & learning centers were abandoned
Other West African Civilizations • Hausa- not a kingdom, but comprised of city-states • Yoruba- various Yoruba kingdoms. Considered to have descended from Ife people • Benin- established near Niger River. They are known for their artwork.
Great Zimbabwe • Shona people established the city • Word zimbabwe comes from Shona word meaning “stone houses” • Location was quite ideal for trade • Empire built on the gold trade • By 1450, Great Zimbabwe was abandoned
Mutapa Empire • Individual named Mutota left G.Z. in 1420. • Traveled north and created a new state. • Dominant army • Conquered nearly all of present-day Zimbabwe.
Southeastern Africa • European Intervention ~ wanted safe harbors for long voyages to Asia ~ desired to est. trade bases in Africa ~ later, wanted to monopolize trade ~ increasingly traded for slaves • African Responses ~ states competed to win European favor and trade advantages ~ leaders raided other villages to sell to the Europeans, or be raided themselves ~ many Africans chose to resist and fight
European Effect • The Portuguese tried to conquer the Mutapa empire. • Political intervention • Served as a sign of European involvement in the future.