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I. The African Environment II. African Cultural Patterns III. Peopling of Africa PowerPoint Presentation
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I. The African Environment II. African Cultural Patterns III. Peopling of Africa

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I. The African Environment II. African Cultural Patterns III. Peopling of Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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I. The African Environment II. African Cultural Patterns III. Peopling of Africa

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  1. I. The African Environment II. African Cultural Patterns III. Peopling of Africa IV. The Bantu Dispersion V. Ethiopia and Northeastern Africa VI. Empires of the Western Sudan VII. West African Forest Kingdoms VIII. Swahili City-States in East Africa IX. Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present

  2. I. The African Environment • A. Physical Environment • Savanna • B. Cultivation Patterns • shifting cultivation, clear land, use, move on • Bush fallow lets field rest, restores fertility • Intercropping, growing complementary plants Rain forest areas: root crops (yams, cassava) • Savanna (grasslands): cereals (sorghum, millet)

  3. II. African Cultural Patterns • A. Family, Gender Roles • bride wealth • polygyny • Lineage, • Women often rulers • Queen mothers could represent lineages • B. Land — held in trust by community • C. Religion • Some more complex • Yoruba • four levels of spiritual beings • Oludumare — pinnacle • Subordinate gods • Priests • Ancestors — Shango • D. Arts • Cire perdue (“lost wax”)

  4. III. The Peopling of Africa • A. Agriculture • Ethiopian grasslands, 3000 B.C.E. • teff, finger millet, noog (oil plant), sesame, • mustard, forests, ensete (bananalike plant), coffee • After 1000 B.C.E., wheat, barley imported • Central Sudan, 4000 B.C.E., • sorghum, millet, rice, cowpeas, root crops • West African savanna • introduced cattle, sheep, goats, pigs • West African Forests • B. Iron Technology • Egypt, Nubia by 6,000 B.C.E., Meroë • Nok (central Nigeria), 700–400 B.C.E.

  5. IV. Bantu Dispersion • Bantu (“people”) • languages: Niger-Congo • A. Origins • Cameroon • movement out from 3000 B.C.E. • why? • South to Angola, Namibia • East to Lake Victoria, south to Congo, Zambia • B. Interactions • bananas and yams • from Malaysia, Polynesia, via Madagascar • intermarried with hunter-gatherers

  6. V. Ethiopia and Northeastern Africa • A. Early Contacts • Egyptian traders to Ethiopia (“Land of Punt”) • from Fifth Dynasty (c. 2494–2345 B.C.E.) • frankincense myrrh aromatic herbs ebony ivory gold wild animals • Saba’ (Yemen) traders to Eritrean coast • from 800 B.C.E. • Ge’ez develops • > Kingdom of Da’amat, ivory trade

  7. V. Ethiopia and Northeastern Africa • B. Aksum • Red Sea trade, from 4th century • ties with Egypt, Roman Empire, Sri Lanka • Exports: ivory, tortoise shells, rhinoceros horns, slaves • Imports: cloth, glassware, wine • Aksum • Adulis Meroë • Coinage • Christianity, by 4th century • King Ezana (320–350) • Frumentius and Aedisius, Syrians • Old and New Testaments > Ge’ez • language of the Church • "Nine Saints,” Syrian Monophysite monks • Kiing El-Asham, 615 • refuge for fleeing Muslims • Yemen, 6th century

  8. V. Ethiopia and Northeastern Africa • C. Zagwe Dynasty • Aksumites and Agaws (Cushitic) • descent from Moses • King Lalibela (1185–1225) • cathedrals at Roha • D. Solomid Dynasty • Yikunno-Amlak • leads rebellion, 1270 • negus (“king of kings”) • Kebre Negast ("Glory of the Kings") • Royal chronicle • claimed ties to Aksum, Makeda (Queen of Saba’): • Makeda visited Solomon, bore son, Menelik • Menelik brought Ark of Covenant to Ethiopia

  9. V. Ethiopia and Northeastern Africa • (D. Solomid Dynasty) • Emperor Amde-Siyon (?–1344) • (“Pillar of Zion”) • Zara Yakob (1434–1468) • (“Seed of Jacob”) • Alliance with pope against Muslims • gults (fiefs) • Decline after 15th century • Oromo • Muslim states 1527–43 • Ahmad al-Ghazi, Ahmad Gran of Adal

  10. VI. Empires of the Western Sudan • A. Camel Caravans and Trade • Salt for gold • Villages from 9th century B.C.E. • Jenne-jeno • B. Ghana (Aoukar or Wagadu) • Soninke farmers • Trade • salt • Kola nuts • King • Kumbi-Saleh, capital

  11. VI. Empires of the Western Sudan • B. Mali • Sumaguru (1200–1235), of the Sosso, • conquers Ghana • Sundiata • Malinke Keita clan • overthrew Sumaguru • Control of gold mining and trade • Wangara, Bambuk • Mansa Musa (1307–1337 • pilgrimage to Mecca, 1324–1325 • Arabic culture • Ibn Battuta • praises Mali • Decline after 1400 • succession • raids, Tuaregs, Sanhaja

  12. VI. Empires of the Western Sudan • B. Mali • Sumaguru (1200–1235), of the Sosso, • conquers Ghana • Sundiata • Malinke Keita clan • overthrew Sumaguru • Control of gold mining and trade • Wangara, Bambuk • Mansa Musa (1307–1337 • pilgrimage to Mecca, 1324–1325 • Arabic culture • Ibn Battuta • praises Mali • Decline after 1400 • succession • raids, Tuaregs, Sanhaja The Catalan Atlas of 1375

  13. VI. Empires of the Western Sudan • C. Songhai • Sunni Ali (1464–1492) • Takes Timbuktu, Walata, Jenne-Jeno • Askia Muhammad (1493–1528) • slave officer in Sunni Ali’s army • King Ahmad al-Mansur of Morocco • invaded Songhai, 1591 • victory over Songhai

  14. VI. Empires of the Western Sudan • D. Kanem-Bornu and the Hausa States • Kanem • Muslim, Sayfuwa Dynasty Controlled Saharan trade: ivory, ostrich feathers for horses • Built large cavalry, raided neighbors • Mai (king) Dunama Dibalemi (1210–1248) • Bornu • Hausa city-states: Kano, Katsina, Zazzau, Gobir • Villages built wooden stockades for protection • Queen Amina of Zazzau • military leader • conquers Kano, Katsina • earthen walls

  15. VII. West African Forest Kingdoms • A. Ife • Yoruba city-state in southwestern Nigeria • Oduduwa • emissary of sky god • founder of dynasty • B. Benin • Edo kingdom • Oba (king) • advised by ozama (council) • Oba Ewuare  • usurper • new capital • C. Oyo • Alafin (king) • Basoru (minister) • Oyo mesi (council of ministers) • D. Art

  16. VIII. Swahili City-States in East Africa • A. East African Swahili Coast • Bantus from 100 B.C.E. to 300 C.E. • Swahili (Bantu) • The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea • Early Greek Description • Dhows • Arab boats • lateen sails • 2000-mile journey — one month • City-States • 100s • Mogadishu, Sofala, Malindi, Pemba, Pate, Mombasa, Mafia, Kilwa • Kilwa • gold trade • matrilineal: queen’s brother inherits • Husuni Kubwa palace and trade emporium

  17. VIII. Swahili City-States in East Africa • A. East African Swahili Coast • Bantus from 100 B.C.E. to 300 C.E. • Swahili (Bantu) • The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea • Early Greek Description • Dhows • Arab boats • lateen sails • 2000-mile journey — one month • City-States • 100s • Mogadishu, Sofala, Malindi, Pemba, Pate, Mombasa, Mafia, Kilwa • Kilwa • gold trade • matrilineal: queen’s brother inherits • Husuni Kubwa palace and trade emporium

  18. VIII. Swahili City-States in East Africa • B. Political features • C. Trade with Europe, Asia • Exports: gold, ivory, slaves • Imports: cloth, beads, porcelain, incense, glass, cloth Chinese Admiral Zheng visited in 1400s • Porcelain, silk, lacquerware for ivory, wood, animals

  19. IX. Kingdoms of Central and Southern Africa • A. Early developments • Bantus from 3rd century B.C.E • Stone building • 150 political centers • Mapungabwe • B. Great Zimbabwe, 1290–1450 • “houses of stone” • 60 acres • Limpopo River • Great Enclosure • 12-foot walls • Collapse • causes? • Torwa, Mutapa • C. Kongo • Wene, petty prince • Manikongo (“lord of the Kongo”) • By 1400 • centralized state