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I G O L Integrated Global Observations of the Land

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  1. I G O LIntegrated Global Observations of the Land John S.Latham FAO-SDRN GTOS IGOL Rome, 13th -15th September 2004 A new theme for the IGOS Partnership

  2. Outline - Agriculture related applications • Introduction • Meeting International Obligations for Standardized Reporting MEA, Conventions • Land Cover – its central role • Agricultural Applications - by FAO example - but really holistic requirements

  3. Challenges – IGOL/GEO et al. a unique opportunity to improve the situation for an improved integrated earth observing strategy • Terrestrial science community • Build strong, effective groups to secure support for operational terrestrial monitoring (satellite and in situ) systems as already exist for oceans and the atmosphere • Enhance the collection and use of data, moving from supply to demand-driven systems that are product orientated and harmonized regardless of scale of observation – global to local and vice versa. • Define the terrestrial observational requirements jointly with the user community? how to engage and build consensus for IGOL ? User w/s? • Design and implement observation and information systems with measurements of known accuracy and quality to demonstrate what is needed and why it is worth doing

  4. Roles and Responsibilities • The Conventions and the COP process through International agencies e.g. UNEP, FAO, WMO and UNESCO and their partners provide the principal international coordination mechanisms for specifying requirements for land and in establishing protocols and standards for collection of observations. How do we engage them effectively? How will we reflect true product needs not just observational requirements? • Need to bring the critical role of the Global Terrestrial Observing System ( GTOS) into IGOL which has prime responsibility of the global observing systems for international coordination of terrestrial parameters .

  5. Stake-holders • At an international level improved observations will help organizations in and outside the UN such as FAO, UNEP and WMO as well as NGO’s and carry out improved assessments, monitoring. • This in turn will help national governments make improved policy decisions related to Nat Resources management in all its components – we need to emphasize capacity development as part of the process • Assist Organizations in meeting recommendations of MA and assist the COP improve the definition of their requirements • Recognize that the user community is often limited in executing its programs by the insufficient quality of terrestrial observations esp. in situ. need for improved densification , reliability, periodicity and consistency of information.

  6. Multiple Users among Conventions CBD CCD Ramsar FCCC SBSTA SBSTTA CST STRP IGOL – products and services should reflect recomm. IPCC MA Research, UN Data, National and International Assessments

  7. CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Convention to CombatDesertification CONVENTION ON WETLANDS Private Sector: Individual Companies, ‘intermediaries’ Trade Organizations National and Sub-National Government Ministries Local Communities & Civil Society Defining IGOL “Users” Authorizing Environment Conventions: Additional Audiences Targeted ... others International Orgs:

  8. Summary of UN Int. Requirements UNEP • Environmental Assessment • Global, regional, sectoral • Early Warning FAO (from individual farmers to government policy makers) • Food security • Sustainable agriculture, forestry and fisheries -SARD • International obligations - conventions

  9. Central role of Land Cover and Remote Sensing in the Land theme • Reliable knowledge of land cover and land cover change is central to most aspects of a Land Theme. • Remote sensing with selected in situ data collection has the potential to provide such information both locally regionally and globally- part of an integrated approach

  10. Land Cover / Land Cover Dynamics

  11. Oregon, USA USA-Mexico border Yangtze River, China Land Cover- what do we mean? • Includes vegetation and man-made features as well as bare rock, bare soil and inland water surfaces • Characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people have undertaken on a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it • Differentiated from "land use" which deals with the socio economic inputs to land – e.g. tenure, rotation, fertilizer etc. "Observed (bio)physical cover of the earth surface"

  12. Single forest cover - multiple possible ‘uses’ • timber production • slash & burn agriculture • hunting/ gathering • fuel-wood collection • recreation • wildlife preserve • watershed protection 1995 1997 Amazon: parts of Tocantins, Maranhao and Para States, Brazil Land Cover versus Land Use – we need both – how realistic is this? • Includes vegetation and man-made features as well as bare rock, bare soil and inland water surfaces • Characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people have undertaken on a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it • Differentiated from "land use" which deals with the socio economic inputs to land – e.g. tenure, rotation, fertilizer etc. "Observed (bio)physical cover of the earth surface"

  13. Land Cover: multi-purpose information for multi-user Assessing progress made towards conventions and treaties Quantifying and understanding how policy impacts the composition and configuration of the various land-covers Measuring agricultural, urban, forestry expansion and the concomitant loss of natural ecosystems and related services Prioritizing activities (e.g. reforestation) to address multi- objectives (e.g. water quality and biodiversity) Assessing the magnitudes and distributions of global carbon sources and sinks and the processes controlling their dynamics Holistic and integrated approach to the conservation and sustainable use of land resources taking into account their multiple roles and functions: sustainability and equity Land cover information in support of:

  14. Challenges To improve observational requirements we need to articulate: What are the primary drivers and processes of land cover change at local, regional, and global levels, and how can land cover be projected over time? What tools or methods are needed to allow a better characterization of historic and current land cover characteristics and dynamics? What are the consequences of land cover change on ecosystem services at regional and global scales? Others…?

  15. Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes supported by biodiversity through which ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life, including through the provision of goods. Provisioning: e.g. Food, Water, Fibre, Fuel, Other biological products Supporting: e.g. Biodiversity, Soil formation, Pollination, Waste treatment, Nutrient cycling, Enriching: e.g. Cultural, Aesthetic, Social relations

  16. Drivers of land cover change of primary interest • Human institutions • Population conditions, size and distribution • Social and economic factors • Resources access, availability, utilization • Climate and land use changes • Large, infrequent or recurrent disturbances (flooding, drought, volcanic eruptions, fires, and large storms)

  17. Land cover observations Human drivers of land use change Biophysical/biogeochemical consequences of land use change Impacts on sustainability Understanding causes/consequences of land cover/use change

  18. What are the tools or methods are needed to allow a better characterization of historic and current land cover characteristics and dynamics? • Continuity of data supply – consistency of observations – e.g. Landsat data continuity , SPOT etc • Foundation: harmonised classification – common language – LCCS • Robust and proven methodology for assessing Land Cover dynamics • Consistent in situ measurements • Validation strategy and defined accuracy for all products

  19. What are the consequences of land cover change on ecosystem services at regional and global scales? • Climate Change • Land Degradation • Pollution and Toxicity • Food Insecurity • Deforestation • Carbon Transfers • Loss of Biodiversity • Changes in fresh water availability

  20. Land Cover and Land Use • Land cover and land use are central to the land theme. • Land cover has major impacts on sustainable land use, biodiversity, conservation, biogeochemical cycles, as well as for land-atmosphere interactions affecting climate and as an indicator of climate change, especially regional climate change. • Fundamental to IGOL are consistent observations for the characterization, monitoring and understanding of land cover and its socio-economic and biophysical drivers. • Specification of requirements for some land cover observations has already been included in the carbon theme, but these may be insufficient for all requirements. • The global provision of both medium resolution (250m-1km resolution) products on an intra annual basis and fine resolution products (25-50m) every year will provide a valuable basic source of information for all the sub-themes.

  21. Land Cover and Land Use • A crucial deficiency currently is the absence of internationally agreed protocols for definition of the products, observations, validation of land cover and land cover change products. Regular collection of in situ data is critical for an integrated and calibrated range of products.

  22. Satellite: Land cover land cover at tens of metres should be obtained globally, every year – processing and interpretation bottlenecks – instit. partitioning

  23. Satellite: Land cover land cover at hundreds of metres can be obtained globally, every 3 months or less – should be timed to assess growing season longevity/AEZ zonation Source: Townshend/UMD, U.S. Global Land Cover Product (1992, 1 km)

  24. Satellite: Fires burning can be mapped globally, daily/weekly – need for susceptibility, real time fires and scars Needs Instit. ownership & uptake Source: Belward/JRC, EU Active fires distribution (2000/10/12, 1 km)

  25. Integration of earth observations Needs coordination mechanism? What is that? how can it improve? In situ Ex situ

  26. Other FAO Requirements

  27. FAO strategic framework 2000-2015 • Contribution to eradication of food insecurity and poverty • Promotion of enabling policies and regulatory framework • Creating sustainable increase in supply of food and other agriculture products • Supporting integrated management and sustainable use of natural resources • Information and knowledge management

  28. FAO activities with RS and geo-spatial components • Global, regional and national early warning for food security • Crop conditions monitoring, yield forecasting • Food insecurity and vulnerability information mapping • Land cover mapping • Desert locust monitoring • Land Degradation assessment • Global forest resources assessment • Natural disaster and emergency support • Poverty mapping • Fire monitoring • Corporate spatial information standardization and dynamic, open access provision – GeoNetwork and Dynamic Atlas

  29. Economic and Social Department Agriculture Department Fisheries Department IGOL Technical Cooperation Department Forestry Department Sustainable Development Department FAO - Institutional Needs

  30. Agriculture Department Promotes food security and sustainable development into the next millennium, and implement FAO’s major programmes on agricultural production and support systems • Land cover information in support of: • Monitoring changes in land degradation and the water regime (e.g. due to deforestation, overgrazing, diversion of water resources, urbanization, etc.) • Early warning information on Locust invasion • Identifying adequate unused potential farmland • Developing agricultural policies leading to sustainable and intensified farming practices including diversification where technically feasible and economically, socially and environmentally viable • Prioritizing watersheds for conservation and restoration • Minimizing the environmental impacts of agriculture and making sure that the benefits reach to the poor and marginal areas: sustainability and equity Land cover change assessment (Madagascar)

  31. 1. Indicators on State of land degradation • Examples of biophysical indicators of land degradation: • Soils: • Erosion - rate of soil loss • Soil organic matter - top soil carbon • Soil nutrient balance, calculated for present land use • Vegetation: • Annual rate of forest clearance, percent • Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) • Water resources: • Monitored levels of water tables; monitored river flow regimes • Degradation of agricultural land: • Changes in crop areas, yields, crop mixtures • Changes in livestock numbers, outputs, kinds of livestock.

  32. Indicators on State of land degradation • Examples of biophysical indicators of land degradation: • Soils: • Erosion - rate of soil loss • Soil organic matter - top soil carbon • Soil nutrient balance, calculated for present land use • Vegetation: • Annual rate of forest clearance, percent • Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) • Water resources: • Monitored levels of water tables; monitored river flow regimes • Degradation of agricultural land: • Changes in crop areas, yields, crop mixtures • Changes in livestock numbers, outputs, kinds of livestock.

  33. Objectives of LADA “The main objective of LADA is to provide basic standardised information and methodological tools for land degradation assessment at national,regional and global levels”. The project will also: • Assess the impactsof land degradation on ecosystems, international waters, shared river basins...(other impacts). • Consider relations between degradation and carbon sequestration. • Analyse linkages with GEF focal areas: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, (the ozone layer). • Provide priorities of GEF interventions in the cross-cutting area of land degradation

  34. Examples of biophysical indicators of land degradation: are they observable? More difficult ( very little agreement yet)...and could be considered as impact indicators? • biodiversity: • decrease of indigenous species of importance for the agriculture sector • (croplands, trees, rangelands) • carbon : • as derived from soil organic matter • as derived from vegetation biomass.

  35. Agriculture Department Active desert locust breeding habitats in NE Mali following seasonal rainfall and vegetation development (Aug/Sep 1999) Promotes food security and sustainable development into the next millennium, and implement FAO’s major programmes on agricultural production and support systems • Land cover information in support of: • Monitoring changes in land degradation and the water regime (e.g. due to deforestation, overgrazing, diversion of water resources, urbanization, etc.) • Early warning information on Locust invasion • Identifying adequate unused potential farmland • Developing agricultural policies leading to sustainable and intensified farming practices including diversification where technically feasible and economically, socially and environmentally viable • Prioritizing watersheds for conservation and restoration • Minimizing the environmental impacts of agriculture and making sure that the benefits reach to the poor and marginal areas: sustainability and equity • Support to analysis and interpretation of dynamic low resolution datasets for food security early warning and locust forecasting at national and sub-national levels • Support to environmental characterization and habitat mapping for food security related applications.

  36. Locust risk map (Eritrea) • Landsat TM • 3 dimensional digital terrain view

  37. Agriculture Department Promotes food security and sustainable development into the next millennium, and implement FAO’s major programmes on agricultural production and support systems • Land cover information in support of: • Monitoring changes in land degradation and the water regime (e.g. due to deforestation, overgrazing, diversion of water resources, urbanization, etc.) • Early warning information on Locust invasion • Definition of farming systems – linking land cover and length of growing season , environmental impediments to agric., including irrigated/non irrigated area • Prioritizing watersheds for conservation and restoration • Minimizing the environmental impacts of agriculture and making sure that the benefits reach to the poor and marginal areas: sustainability and equity

  38. Farming Systems

  39. Agriculture Department Promotes food security and sustainable development into the next millennium, and implement FAO’s major programmes on agricultural production and support systems • Land cover information in support of: • Monitoring changes in land degradation and the water regime (e.g. due to deforestation, overgrazing, diversion of water resources, urbanization, etc.) • Early warning information on Locust invasion • Identifying adequate unused potential farmland • Developing agricultural policies leading to sustainable and intensified farming practices including diversification where technically feasible and economically, socially and environmentally viable • Prioritizing watersheds for conservation and restoration • Minimizing the environmental impacts of agriculture and making sure that the benefits reach to the poor and marginal areas: sustainability and equity

  40. River Basin Management- understanding water availability/transfers

  41. Economic and Social Department Agriculture Department Fisheries Department IGOL Technical Cooperation Department Forestry Department Sustainable Development Department FAO - Institutional Needs

  42. Forestry Department Helps nation manage their forests in a sustainable way Land cover information in support of: • Monitoring large scale deforestation, changes in wetlands and areas of cultivated • land for quantification of carbon sinks and sources • Inventorying of global forest cover loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and fragmentation • Protecting the environmental services provided by forests • Promoting forestland patterns and systems more resistant to disturbances • Prioritizing areas for management, rehabilitation and conservation of forestlands:sustainability and equity

  43. Led by Erika Lepers Department of Geography University of Louvain, Belgium Draft map Areas of rapid deforestation World

  44. Information framework for Global Monitoring of Forests, Land use and the Environment • Objectives • To better link global, regional and national studies on forest, land use, and the environment • To improve standardization, homogenization, compatibility and efficiency of information provided by different applications and providers – send a common message • To provide information that improves design and efficiency of sampling for national forest assessment linked to improved global observing strategies and disturbances • To increase use and sharing of remote sensing data

  45. Forest Resources Assessment 1977 1988 1998 Proposed scope of GFRA Global and regional monitoring of forest extent done through application of remote sensing and sampling schemes.

  46. Economic and Social Department Agriculture Department Fisheries Department IGOL Technical Cooperation Department Forestry Department Sustainable Development Department FAO - Institutional Needs

  47. Economic and Social Department (1) Ensures the development of policies, strategies and guidelines and provides advisory and technical services to FAO members; and (2) collects, analyzes and disseminates information in the relevant fields of competence to FAO members Land cover information in support of: Assessing the impact of land cover dynamics on the different socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of food insecurity, which include peoples’ livelihoods and vulnerability Strengthening population livelihoods by taking advantage of the synergies between urban, agricultural, forestry, and fisheries activities Exploring successes and constraints in adapting food security policies to prevailing drought conditions. – definition of onset of adverse conditions Advancing the understanding of community dynamics, and assist decision-making at the community and national levels for food security and reduction of vulnerability: sustainability and equity

  48. Global Information and Early Warning Systemon Food and Agriculture (GIEWS) The FAO Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) was established in 1975 and monitors the global food supply and demand in order to provide timely warnings of impending food supply problems facing individual countries. The system issues reports in up to 5 languages and make extensive use of computer technologies to assist in its analysis. GIEWS reports to the international community through its regular publications and through the FAO WWW server. The GIEWS provides detailed country specific level information on FAO website at WWW.FAO.ORG/GIEWS

  49. GIEWS has developed an on-line database on food and agriculture for for many countries in Africa. The on-line database contains base maps, up-to-date satellite images provided by ARTEMIS, information on crops, climate, and population. • GIEWS has developed a new internet-based system known as GeoWeb which allows users to access GIEWS Workstation databases and tools via the Internet in three languages. • Users can develop their own maps on demand by combining the latest satellite images and digital maps.