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Textile Fibers and Yarns

6. Chapter. Textile Fibers and Yarns. Raw Materials. Creating fashion goods begins with attention to their raw materials Fibers have unique properties that influence appearance, care, strength, absorbency, warmth, shrinkage, and price. Natural Fibers. Cellulosic fibers come from plants

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Textile Fibers and Yarns

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  1. 6 Chapter Textile Fibers and Yarns

  2. Raw Materials • Creating fashion goods begins with attention to their raw materials • Fibers have unique properties that influence appearance, care, strength, absorbency, warmth, shrinkage, and price

  3. Natural Fibers • Cellulosic fibers come from plants • Examples: cotton and linen • Protein fibers come from animal sources • Example: wool and silk continued

  4. Natural Fibers • Staple fibers are short (less than 8 inches) • Longer lengths of staple fibers are considered to be better quality than short lengths

  5. Long, continuous fibers are called filaments (measured in yards or meters) • Silk is the only natural filament fiber

  6. Most natural fibers are comfortable, absorbent, prone to wrinkling and shrinking • New finishing treatments have reduced the tendency to shrink when washed and wrinkle

  7. Cotton • Cottonis • a cellulosic fiber that comes from the “bolls” (seed pods) of cotton plants • the most popular fiber in the global market • soft, durable, and very comfortable to wear

  8. “Environmentally friendly” cotton is grown in a range of colors • This eliminates the toxic waste and expense of dyeing • The cotton has a luxurious feel and does not fade • Its fibers are shorter and weaker than conventional white cotton

  9. Flax (Linen) • Flaxis • the world’s oldest textile fiber • a stiff, absorbent from the stem of the flax plant • imported from Europe • Fabric made from flax fiber, called linen, • is known for its beauty and strength • has a tendency to crease and wrinkle

  10. Wool • Woolis a protein fiber from the hair (fleece) of sheep or lambs • Worsted yarns are long staple wool fibers (more than 2 inches in length) • Shorter wool fibers are used in less expensive woolenfabrics • Wool is a versatile fiber with many end uses

  11. Wool • Wool is • Flame retardant • Resilient • A natural insulator • Lightweight • Shrinks when washed • Hygroscopic

  12. Wool • The terms pure wool, virgin wool, and 100% wool are interchangeable • They indicate new fibers that have never been used • Recycled wool fibers are recovered from previously made wool fabrics

  13. Silk • Silk is a protein fiber from cocoons spun by silkworms • Silk is • known for its beauty, strength, and luster as well as it high cost of production, limited durability, and special-care needs • Approximately 1,000 yds. of continuous thread come from 1 cocoon. • imported mainly from China, Japan, and Thailand

  14. Other Natural Fibers • Ramie—a cellulosic fiber from the stalks of a leafed plant called China grass • Jute, sisal, raffia, and hemp—other natural cellulosic fibers from plants • Camel hair, angora (rabbits), mohair (angora goat), cashmere (cashmere goat), llama, vicuña, and alpaca—protein “specialty hair fibers” • Down—a fluffy feather undercoating of geese and ducks

  15. Marketing Natural Fibers • Natural fiber trade associations promote the favorable characteristics of their fibers • Cotton Incorporatedis a marketing and research organization • National Cotton Council of Americais the central organization of the cotton industry • Almost all fiber trade associations provide fabric libraries that contain sample fabrics continued

  16. Marketing Natural Fibers • Silk and linen do not currently have marketing organizations in the United States • Other marketing organizations include • American Sheep Industry Association • International Wool Textile Organization • Mohair Council of America • Alpaca United

  17. Leather and Fur • Leather and fur are from the hides (skins) of animals • Their use is controversial today • Artificial substitutes have been developed to copy their look and feel • Real leather and fur are quite expensive since supply is limited and processing is complicated

  18. Leather • Leatheris a tough, flexible material made by preserving animal hides • The supply of leather in this country depends on the demand for meat rather than leather continued

  19. Leather • Cattlehide is the most dominant in apparel. • Reptile skins are also used in fashion products • New leather finishes, textures, and colors • Top grain leatheris the high quality “genuine leather”

  20. Marketing of Leather • Because of long processing time, fashion trends for leather must be decided 2 years or more in advance • Advertising is done by product designers and manufacturers, not tanners and finishers • The primary trade association for leather tanners is the Leather Industries of America continued

  21. Fur • Furis the soft, hairy coat of an animal • Processed fur pelts are used for “prestige” apparel • The fur industry includes animal pelt producers, fur processors, and product manufacturers continued

  22. Marketing of Fur • Fur garment sales occur through showrooms of furriers or leased departments within stores • With consignment selling, the retailer accepts merchandise to sell, but does not own it

  23. Manufactured Fibers • Manufactured fibers are created in laboratories • Cellulosic manufactured fibers are made from wood pulp plus chemicals that “regenerate” the cellulose • Noncellulosic manufactured fibers (“synthetic” fibers) are made from petrochemical mixtures of crude oil, natural gas, air, and water

  24. Steps to Manufacture Fibers • Solid raw materials are melted with heat or dissolved by chemicals to form a thick liquid • The liquid is forced through a spinneret, which is a nozzle with many tiny holes • Each hole forms a filament fiber • The filaments are stretched and hardened to become usable fibers

  25. Categories of Manufactured Fibers • Manufactured fibers are categorized by generic groups • A generic name identifies each family of manufactured fiber with similar chemical composition • Commodity fibers,sold by generic groups, are not identified with a specific maker continued

  26. Categories of Manufactured Fibers • The trade name or trademark and the fiber-making process are registered with the U.S. Patent Office • These cost more than commodity fibers

  27. Manufactured fibers have some qualities that are superior to those of natural fibers, such as strength or elasticity, resist abrasion • They absorb oil, but not moisture and are heat sensitive • Nonabsorbent fibers also build static electricity that causes them to cling

  28. Characteristics of Manufactured Fibers • It is important for people to know the advantages, disadvantages of each group • Polyester is the largest selling manufactured fiber • Olefin has excellent wicking ability • Wickingwill pull body moisture to the fabric’s surface where it can evaporate

  29. The Latest Fiber Trends • Lyocell is a fairly new generic group • It is a cellulosic manufactured fiber • “Closed loop” production • Other new fibers are being developed from renewable resources (corn and soybeans) • Rayon is being made from bamboo, which grows fast continued

  30. The Latest Fiber Trends • A recycling process can turn plastic soft drink bottles into “earth friendly” fibers for apparel continued

  31. The Latest Fiber Trends • Nanotechnology is the altering of materials atom by atom at the molecular level • This control of tiny measurements is playing a greater role in developing new fiber properties

  32. Spinning Fibers into Yarns • The process of spinning draws, twists, and winds fibers into long, cohesive strands • Monofilament yarns are simply single filaments • Multifilament yarnsare made by twisting together many single filaments • Staple fibers go through a mechanical spinningprocess that forms a continuous strand continued

  33. Spinning Fibers into Yarns • Ply yarnsare formed by twisting together two or more single yarns • Each yarn strand is called a ply • Staple fibers are sometimes left unspun for filling pillows or comforters • This is called fiberfill

  34. Yarn Blends and Textures • Yarn characteristics can be changed by varying the fiber content • A blendis made when two or more fibers are put together before being spun into yarn • Different percentages of fibers in blends produce specific results continued

  35. Yarn Blends and Textures • Yarns of manufactured fibers are usually textured by processing with chemicals, heat, or special machinery • Texturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns

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