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Textile Fibers and Yarns

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Textile Fibers and Yarns

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  1. 6 Chapter Textile Fibers and Yarns

  2. Raw Materials • Creating fashion goods begins with attention to their raw materials • Fibers have unique properties that influence appearance, care, strength, absorbency, warmth, shrinkage, and price

  3. Natural Fibers • Cellulosic fibers come from plants • Examples: cotton and linen • Protein fibers come from animal sources • Example: wool and silk continued

  4. Natural Fibers • Staple fibers are short (less than 8 inches) • Longer lengths of staple fibers are considered to be better quality than short lengths

  5. Long, continuous fibers are called filaments (measured in yards or meters) • Silk is the only natural filament fiber

  6. Most natural fibers are comfortable, absorbent, prone to wrinkling and shrinking • New finishing treatments have reduced the tendency to shrink when washed and wrinkle

  7. Cotton • Cottonis • a cellulosic fiber that comes from the “bolls” (seed pods) of cotton plants • the most popular fiber in the global market • soft, durable, and very comfortable to wear

  8. “Environmentally friendly” cotton is grown in a range of colors • This eliminates the toxic waste and expense of dyeing • The cotton has a luxurious feel and does not fade • Its fibers are shorter and weaker than conventional white cotton

  9. Flax (Linen) • Flaxis • the world’s oldest textile fiber • a stiff, absorbent from the stem of the flax plant • imported from Europe • Fabric made from flax fiber, called linen, • is known for its beauty and strength • has a tendency to crease and wrinkle

  10. Wool • Woolis a protein fiber from the hair (fleece) of sheep or lambs • Worsted yarns are long staple wool fibers (more than 2 inches in length) • Shorter wool fibers are used in less expensive woolenfabrics • Wool is a versatile fiber with many end uses

  11. Wool • Wool is • Flame retardant • Resilient • A natural insulator • Lightweight • Shrinks when washed • Hygroscopic

  12. Wool • The terms pure wool, virgin wool, and 100% wool are interchangeable • They indicate new fibers that have never been used • Recycled wool fibers are recovered from previously made wool fabrics

  13. Silk • Silk is a protein fiber from cocoons spun by silkworms • Silk is • known for its beauty, strength, and luster as well as it high cost of production, limited durability, and special-care needs • Approximately 1,000 yds. of continuous thread come from 1 cocoon. • imported mainly from China, Japan, and Thailand

  14. Other Natural Fibers • Ramie—a cellulosic fiber from the stalks of a leafed plant called China grass • Jute, sisal, raffia, and hemp—other natural cellulosic fibers from plants • Camel hair, angora (rabbits), mohair (angora goat), cashmere (cashmere goat), llama, vicuña, and alpaca—protein “specialty hair fibers” • Down—a fluffy feather undercoating of geese and ducks

  15. Marketing Natural Fibers • Natural fiber trade associations promote the favorable characteristics of their fibers • Cotton Incorporatedis a marketing and research organization • National Cotton Council of Americais the central organization of the cotton industry • Almost all fiber trade associations provide fabric libraries that contain sample fabrics continued

  16. Marketing Natural Fibers • Silk and linen do not currently have marketing organizations in the United States • Other marketing organizations include • American Sheep Industry Association • International Wool Textile Organization • Mohair Council of America • Alpaca United

  17. Leather and Fur • Leather and fur are from the hides (skins) of animals • Their use is controversial today • Artificial substitutes have been developed to copy their look and feel • Real leather and fur are quite expensive since supply is limited and processing is complicated

  18. Leather • Leatheris a tough, flexible material made by preserving animal hides • The supply of leather in this country depends on the demand for meat rather than leather continued

  19. Leather • Cattlehide is the most dominant in apparel. • Reptile skins are also used in fashion products • New leather finishes, textures, and colors • Top grain leatheris the high quality “genuine leather”

  20. Marketing of Leather • Because of long processing time, fashion trends for leather must be decided 2 years or more in advance • Advertising is done by product designers and manufacturers, not tanners and finishers • The primary trade association for leather tanners is the Leather Industries of America continued

  21. Fur • Furis the soft, hairy coat of an animal • Processed fur pelts are used for “prestige” apparel • The fur industry includes animal pelt producers, fur processors, and product manufacturers continued

  22. Marketing of Fur • Fur garment sales occur through showrooms of furriers or leased departments within stores • With consignment selling, the retailer accepts merchandise to sell, but does not own it

  23. Manufactured Fibers • Manufactured fibers are created in laboratories • Cellulosic manufactured fibers are made from wood pulp plus chemicals that “regenerate” the cellulose • Noncellulosic manufactured fibers (“synthetic” fibers) are made from petrochemical mixtures of crude oil, natural gas, air, and water

  24. Steps to Manufacture Fibers • Solid raw materials are melted with heat or dissolved by chemicals to form a thick liquid • The liquid is forced through a spinneret, which is a nozzle with many tiny holes • Each hole forms a filament fiber • The filaments are stretched and hardened to become usable fibers

  25. Categories of Manufactured Fibers • Manufactured fibers are categorized by generic groups • A generic name identifies each family of manufactured fiber with similar chemical composition • Commodity fibers,sold by generic groups, are not identified with a specific maker continued

  26. Categories of Manufactured Fibers • The trade name or trademark and the fiber-making process are registered with the U.S. Patent Office • These cost more than commodity fibers

  27. Manufactured fibers have some qualities that are superior to those of natural fibers, such as strength or elasticity, resist abrasion • They absorb oil, but not moisture and are heat sensitive • Nonabsorbent fibers also build static electricity that causes them to cling

  28. Characteristics of Manufactured Fibers • It is important for people to know the advantages, disadvantages of each group • Polyester is the largest selling manufactured fiber • Olefin has excellent wicking ability • Wickingwill pull body moisture to the fabric’s surface where it can evaporate

  29. The Latest Fiber Trends • Lyocell is a fairly new generic group • It is a cellulosic manufactured fiber • “Closed loop” production • Other new fibers are being developed from renewable resources (corn and soybeans) • Rayon is being made from bamboo, which grows fast continued

  30. The Latest Fiber Trends • A recycling process can turn plastic soft drink bottles into “earth friendly” fibers for apparel continued

  31. The Latest Fiber Trends • Nanotechnology is the altering of materials atom by atom at the molecular level • This control of tiny measurements is playing a greater role in developing new fiber properties

  32. Spinning Fibers into Yarns • The process of spinning draws, twists, and winds fibers into long, cohesive strands • Monofilament yarns are simply single filaments • Multifilament yarnsare made by twisting together many single filaments • Staple fibers go through a mechanical spinningprocess that forms a continuous strand continued

  33. Spinning Fibers into Yarns • Ply yarnsare formed by twisting together two or more single yarns • Each yarn strand is called a ply • Staple fibers are sometimes left unspun for filling pillows or comforters • This is called fiberfill

  34. Yarn Blends and Textures • Yarn characteristics can be changed by varying the fiber content • A blendis made when two or more fibers are put together before being spun into yarn • Different percentages of fibers in blends produce specific results continued

  35. Yarn Blends and Textures • Yarns of manufactured fibers are usually textured by processing with chemicals, heat, or special machinery • Texturing gives bulk, stretch, softness, and wrinkle-resistance to yarns