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Fibers. Chapter 14. Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles Yarn is a continuous strand of fibers Fabric is a textile product made by knitting or weaving yarns together. Fibers are combined to make yarns Yarns are combined to make fabrics. Fiber Characteristics.

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fibers

Fibers

Chapter 14

slide2
Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles
  • Yarn is a continuous strand of fibers
  • Fabric is a textile product made by knitting or weaving yarns together
slide3
Fibers are combined to make yarns
  • Yarns are combined to make fabrics
fiber characteristics
Fiber Characteristics
  • Each fiber has its own characteristics
  • Fiber source (natural or manufactured) determines characteristics
  • Fibers may be short, long, curly or straight
fiber characteristics5
Fiber Characteristics
  • Strength – the ability to withstand pulling and twisting
  • Shrinkage – the ability to maintain size
  • Warmth – the ability to maintain body temperature
  • Durability – the ability to hold up in repeated use
fiber characteristics6
Fiber Characteristics
  • Absorbency – the ability to take in moisture
  • Wrinkle resistance – the ability to resist creasing
  • Resiliency – the ability to spring back when crushed or wrinkled
selecting fibers
Selecting Fibers
  • Knowing fiber characteristics will help you choose the appropriate fiber for the end use
  • What fiber characteristic would be appropriate for:
    • Coat - Dress shirt
    • Bath towel - Work pants
    • Carpet - Shoe laces
natural fibers
Natural Fibers
  • The most common natural fibers are cotton, linen, wool and silk
  • The two categories of natural fibers are:
    • Cellulosic fibers – fibers from plant sources like cotton, flax, ramie, hemp, and jute
    • Protein fibers – fibers from animal sources like wool, silk, mohair, cashmere, camel’s hair, alpaca, and angora
manufactured fibers
Manufactured fibers
  • More widely used than natural fibers
  • Used in clothes, accessories, furniture, and cars
  • Wide variety of fiber characteristics
  • Rayon was the first commercially produced fiber in 1924. It was marketed as “artificial silk.”
manufactured fibers10
Manufactured Fibers
  • The two categories of manufactured fibers are:
    • Cellulosic fibers – make from wood chips dissolved in chemicals. Examples are rayon, acetate, triacetate and lyocell.
    • Noncellulosic or Synthetic fibers – made from combining the chemicals like nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Examples are nylon, polyester, olefin, acrylic, and spandex.
manufacturing process
Manufacturing Process
  • Step 1 – The solid raw material is changed into a liquid.
  • Step 2 – The liquid is extruded (forced or pushed) through a spinneret with very tiny holes
  • Step 3 – The liquid is hardened into a fiber
manufactured fiber modifications
Manufactured Fiber Modifications
  • Fibers can be thick or thin
  • Cross section can be round, flat or shaped
  • The color, shine, wrinkle-resistance, absorption, and strength can be varied
  • Fibers can be crimped, textured, coiled or looped
  • Fibers can be blended with other manufactured or natural fibers
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