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Mishken College. Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Supportive Module - 1. Module Description. This Module Covers: Introducing Information and Communication Technology ( ICT) Basics of Computers Computer data representation and numbering System

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    1. Mishken College Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Supportive Module - 1

    2. Module Description • This Module Covers: • Introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Basics of Computers • Computer data representation and numbering System • Basics of Data Communication • Computer Networking • Computer Hazards and Security Mishqen College Department of ICT

    3. LEARNING OUTCOMES (OBJECTIVES) • At the end of the module the learner will be able to: • Understand the constituents of Information and Communication Technologies, familiarized with computer systems and application areas of IT and, link it with the subsequent vocational training modules. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    4. Relationship to Unit of Competence Standards • This Module is related with all competencies found in the EOS • ICT ITA S01 0108Operate a personal computer • ICT ITA S02 0108Migrate to new technology • ICT ITA S03 0108Advice clients and provide first-level remote help desk support • ICT ITA S04 0108Protect computer hardware & application or system software • ICT ITA S105 0108Connect hardware peripherals • ICT ITA S06 0108Support system software • ICT ITA S07 0108Determine and take action client computing and network problems • ICT ITA S08 0108Implement maintenance procedures • ICT ITA S09 0108Maintain equipment and software in working order • ICT ITA S10 0108Install software applications • ICT ITA S11 0108Create technical documentations • ICT ITA S12 0108Record client support requirements • ICT ITA S13 0108Maintain inventories for equipment, software & documentation • ICT ITA S14 0108Apply problem solving techniques to routine malfunctions Mishqen College Department of ICT

    5. Module Contents at Glance • Introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Introduction to Information Technology • Information and Data Processing • Basics of Information Systems • Basics of Computer System • Definition, Concepts, History and evolution of Computers • Types of Computers • Characteristics of Computers • Application of Computers • Computers and Hunan Beings • The Computer System • The Computer Hardware • The Computer Software Mishqen College Department of ICT

    6. Module Contents at Glance • Computer Data Representation and Numbering ystem • Units of Data Representation • The Numbering System • Coding Systems (Schemes) • Basics of Data Communication • Overview of Data Communication • Components of Data Communication System • Basics Computer Networking • Concepts and Importance of Computer Networking • Types of Network • Components of Network • Network Architectures • Basics Concepts of the Internet • Basic Concepts of Intranet Versus Extranet Mishqen College Department of ICT

    7. Module Contents at Glance • Network Layers, Protocols and Standards • Computer Hazards and Security • Physical Computer Hazards and Security • Logical Computer Hazards and Security • Computer Ethics Mishqen College Department of ICT

    8. Chapter Two Basics of Computers Mishqen College Department of ICT

    9. Objectives of this Chapter • After the end of these Chapter, trainees will be able to: • Define what computer is • Understand the four basic computer operations • Understand characteristics of computers • Explain the computers evolution and their historical development • Identify the different types of currently used computers • Discuss the capabilities of computers • Explain how data is organized • Discuss the applications of computers • Identify the limitation of computers • Comparing human being with computers Mishqen College Department of ICT

    10. Basic Concepts About Computer • What is Computer? • Computer is electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit, which can accept data (input), manipulate the data according to special rules (process), produce information (output) from the processing, and store the results for future use. • Computer is a collection of devices that function together as a system. • Computer is an electronic data processing machine that’s designed and organized to automatically accept and store data, process them, and produce output under the direction of a stored detailed step-by-step sets of instruction. • Computer is a programmable electronic device. • Computer is a system composed of hardware and software components. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    11. History and Evolution of Computers • The Origins • Prehistoric man did not have the Internet, but it appears that he needed a way to count and make calculations. • The limitations of the human body’s ten fingers and ten toes apparently caused early man to construct a tool to help with those calculations. • Scientists now know that humankind invented an early form of computers. • Their clue was a bone carved with prime numbers found in 8,500 BC. • The abacus was the next leap forward in computing between 1000 BC and 500 BD. • This apparatus used a series of moveable beads or rocks. • The positions changed to enter a number and again to perform mathematical operations. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    12. History and Evolution of Computers • Leonardo DaVinci was credited with the invention of the world’s first mechanical calculator in 1500. • In 1642, Blaise Pascal’s adding machine upstaged DaVinci’s marvel and moved computing forward again. • In 19th century England, Charles Babbage, a mathematician, proposed the construction of a machine that he called the Babbage Difference Engine. • It would not only calculate numbers, it would also be capable of printing mathematical tables. • The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA (near San Diego) built a working replica from the original drawings. • Visitors can see in the device in operation there. • Unable to construct the actual device, he earned quite a few detractors among England’s literate citizens. • However, Babbage made a place for himself in history as the father of computing. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    13. History and Evolution of Computers • Not satisfied with the machines limitations, he drafted plans for the Babbage Analytical Engine. • He intended for this computing device to use punch cards as the control mechanism for calculations. • This feature would make it possible for his computer to use previously performed calculations in new ones. • Babbage’s idea caught the attention of Ada Byron Lovelace who had an undying passion for math. • She also saw possibilities that the Analytical Machine could produce graphics and music. • She helped Babbage move his project from idea to reality by documenting how the device would calculate Bernoulli numbers. She later received recognition for writing the world’s first computer program. • The United States Department of Defense named a computer language in her honor in 1979. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    14. History and Evolution of Computers • The computers that followed built on each previous success and improved it. • In 1943, the first programmable computer Turing COLOSSUS appeared. • It was pressed into service to decipher World War II coded messages from Germany. • ENIAC, the brain, was the first electronic computer, in 1946. • In 1951, the U.S. Census Bureau became the first government agency to buy a computer, UNIVAC . • The Apple expanded the use of computers to consumers in 1977. • The IBM PC for consumers followed closely in 1981, although IBM mainframes were in use by government and corporations. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    15. History and Evolution of Computers • 8,500 BC Bone carved with prime numbers found • 1000 BC to 500 BC Abacus invented • 1642 Blaise Pascal’s invented adding machine, France • 1822 Charles Babbage drafted Babbage Difference Engine, England • 1835 Babbage Analytical Engine proposed, England • 1843 Ada Byron Lovelace computer program to calculate Bernoulli numbers, England • 1943 Turing COLOSSUS the first programmable computer, England • 1946 ENIAC first electronic computer, U.S.A. • 1951 UNIVAC first computer used by U.S. government, U.S.A. • 1969 ARPANET Department of Defense lays groundwork for Internet, U.S.A. • 1968 Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found in Intel, U.S.A. • 1977 Apple computers for consumers sold, U.S.A. • 1981 IBM personal computers sold, U.S.A. • 1991 World Wide Web consumer Internet access, CERN, Tim Berners-Lee Switzerland/France • 2000 Y 2K Bug programming errors discovered • Current Technologies include word processing, games, email, maps, and streaming Mishqen College Department of ICT

    16. History and Evolution of Computers • Abacus (5000BC) • The first mechanical calculator with moving parts, which used in performing arithmetic calculations. Abacus Mishqen College Department of ICT

    17. History and Evolution of Computers • The Slide Rule (1632) • Slide rule is a complex mechanical calculating device used for logarithmic and compound interest calculations. • It was invented by William Oughtred Slide Rule Mishqen College Department of ICT

    18. History and Evolution of Computers • Pascal’s Calculator (1642) • It was a mechanical calculating device used to perform addition and subtraction only. • Pascal's device used a series of toothed wheels, which were turned by hand and which could handle numbers up to 999,999.999. • Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator" and was one of the world's first mechanical adding machines. Pascaline Calculator Mishqen College Department of ICT

    19. History and Evolution of Computers • Babbage’s Engines (1822) • It was invented by Charles Babbage, British Mathematician • It was a multiple adding machine, designed to compute and print tables of polynomials by repeated addition of differences. • Babbage invented two different engines which was considered as the forerunner of the modern computer, Differential and Analytical engines. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    20. Generations of Computers • The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. • Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. • Depending on the type of materials used and facilities available, the development of electronic computers are classified into five generations. • First Generation Computers (1990-1959) • Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) • Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) • Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) • Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond) Mishqen College Department of ICT

    21. First Generation Computers (1940-1956) The age of Vacuum Tube • The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. • They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. • First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. • Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. • The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. • The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    22. First Generation Computers (1940-1956) The age of Vacuum Tube UNIVAC Mishqen College Department of ICT

    23. First Generation Computers (1940-1956) The age of Vacuum Tube UNIVAC Vacuum Tube -- Shown are vacuum tube rectifiers of the type used in early UNIVAC computer power supplies. The UNIVAC was produced in the 1950's by Remington Rand Univac. Vacuum Tubes Mishqen College Department of ICT

    24. First Generation Computers (1940-1956) The age of Vacuum Tube ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), the first electronic computer that could handle large scale calculations. The 28-ton device, with nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes, could crank 5,000 addition problems in a second, and was used on projects relating to hydrogen bomb development. For comparison, an Intel Core Duo chip does about 21.5 billion operations per second. Fine-tuning ENIAC. J. Presper Eckert (the man in the foreground turning a knob) served and John Mauchly (center) designed ENIAC to calculate the trajectory of artillery shells. The machine didn’t debut until February 1946, after the end of World War II, but it did launch the computer revolution. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    25. First Generation Computers (1940-1956) The age of Vacuum Tube • Machine Language • The lowest-level programming language (except for computers that utilize programmable microcode) Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. • While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. • Programmers, therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. • An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers. • Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler. • Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler. • Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    26. Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) The age of Transistors • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. • The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. • The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. • Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. • Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. • Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    27. Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) The age of Transistors • High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. • These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. • The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. • Transistors amplify current, for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp, relay or other high current device. • In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage, so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage. • A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current, or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). Mishqen College Department of ICT

    28. Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) The age of Transistors Transistors Mishqen College Department of ICT

    29. Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) The age of Transistors • Transistor • A device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. • Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. • Today's microprocessors contains tens of millions of microscopic transistors. • Prior to the invention of transistors, digital circuits were composed of vacuum tubes, which had many disadvantages. • They were much larger, required more energy, dissipated more heat, and were more prone to failures. • It's safe to say that without the invention of transistors, computing as we know it today would not be possible. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    30. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) The age of Integrated Circuits • The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. • Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. • Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. • Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    31. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) The age of Integrated Circuits • IntegratedCircuit • Another name for a chip, an integrated circuit (IC) is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material. • The first integrated circuit was developed in the 1950s by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor. • Integrated circuits are used for a variety of devices, including microprocessors, audio and video equipment, and automobiles. • Integrated circuits are often classified by the number of transistors and other electronic components they contain: • SSI (small-scale integration): Up to 100 electronic components per chip • MSI (medium-scale integration): From 100 to 3,000 electronic components per chip • LSI (large-scale integration): From 3,000 to 100,000 electronic components per chip • VLSI (very large-scale integration): From 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components per chip • ULSI (ultra large-scale integration): More than 1 million electronic components per chip Mishqen College Department of ICT

    32. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) The age of Integrated Circuits • Silicon • A nonmetallic chemical element in the carbon family of elements. • Silicon - atomic symbol "Si" - is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, surpassed only by oxygen. • Silicon does not occur uncombined in nature. • Sand and almost all rocks contain silicon combined with oxygen, forming silica. • When silicon combines with other elements, such as iron, aluminum or potassium, a silicate is formed. • Compounds of silicon also occur in the atmosphere, natural waters, many plants and in the bodies of some animals. • Silicon is the basic material used to make computer chips, transistors, silicon diodes and other electronic circuits and switching devices because its atomic structure makes the element an ideal semiconductor. • Silicon is commonly doped, or mixed, with other elements, such as boron, phosphorous and arsenic, to alter its conductive properties. • Silicon was first isolated and described as an element in 1824 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    33. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) The age of Integrated Circuits • Chip • A small piece of semiconducting material (usually silicon) on which an integrated circuit is embedded. • A typical chip is less than ¼-square inches and can contain millions of electronic components (transistors). • Computers consist of many chips placed on electronic boards called printed circuit boards. • There are different types of chips. • For example, CPU chips (also called microprocessors) contain an entire processing unit, whereas memory chips contain blank memory. • Chips come in a variety of packages. • The three most common are: • DIPs : Dual in-line packages are the traditional buglike chips that have anywhere from 8 to 40 legs, evenly divided in two rows. • PGAs : Pin-grid arrays are square chips in which the pins are arranged in concentric squares. • SIPs : Single in-line packages are chips that have just one row of legs in a straight line like a comb. • In addition to these types of chips, there are also single in-line memory modules (SIMMs), which consist of up to nine chips packaged as a single unit. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    34. Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) The age of Integrated Circuits • Semiconductor • A material that is neither a good conductor of electricity (like copper) nor a good insulator (like rubber). • The most common semiconductor materials are silicon and germanium. • These materials are then doped to create an excess or lack of electrons. • Computer chips, both for CPU and memory, are composed of semiconductor materials. • Semiconductors make it possible to miniaturize electronic components, such as transistors. • Not only does miniaturization mean that the components take up less space, it also means that they are faster and require less energy. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    35. Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) The Age of Microprocessors • The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. • What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. • The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip. • In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. • Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. • As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. • Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    36. Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) The Age of Microprocessors • Microprocessor • A silicon chip that contains a CPU. • In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. • At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. • Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. • Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors: • Instructionset: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute. • bandwidth : The number of bits processed in a single instruction. • clockspeed : Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. • In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. • For example, a 32-bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 25MHz. • In addition to bandwidth and clock speed, microprocessors are classified as being either RISC (reduced instruction set computer) or CISC (complex instruction set computer). Mishqen College Department of ICT

    37. Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) The Age of Microprocessors • CPU • Pronounced as separate letters it is the abbreviation for central processing unit. • The CPU is the brains of the computer. • Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. • In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. • On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. • On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. • Since the 1970's the microprocessor class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPU implementations. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    38. Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present) The Age of Microprocessors • CPU • The CPU itself is an internal component of the computer. • Modern CPUs are small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pins on the underside. • The CPU is inserted directly into a CPU socket, pin side down, on the motherboard. • Each motherboard will support only a specific type or range of CPU so you must check the motherboard manufacturer's specifications before attempting to replace or upgrade a CPU. • Modern CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that go directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat. • Two typical components of a CPU are the following: • The arithmeticlogicunit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations. • The controlunit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    39. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. • The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. • Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. • The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    40. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • Artificial Intelligence • The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. • The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • Artificial intelligence includes: • gamesplaying: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers • expertsystems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms) • naturallanguage : programming computers to understand natural human languages • neuralnetworks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains • robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli Mishqen College Department of ICT

    41. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • VoiceRecognition • The field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words. • Note that voice recognition implies only that the computer can take dictation, not that it understands what is being said. • Comprehending human languages falls under a different field of computer science called natural language processing. • A number of voice recognition systems are available on the market. • The most powerful can recognize thousands of words. • However, they generally require an extended training session during which the computer system becomes accustomed to a particular voice and accent. • Such systems are said to be speaker dependent. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    42. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • VoiceRecognition • Many systems also require that the speaker speak slowly and distinctly and separate each word with a short pause. • These systems are called discrete speech systems. • Recently, great strides have been made in continuous speech systems -- voice recognition systems that allow you to speak naturally. • There are now several continuous-speech systems available for personal computers. • Because of their limitations and high cost, voice recognition systems have traditionally been used only in a few specialized situations. • For example, such systems are useful in instances when the user is unable to use a keyboard to enter data because his or her hands are occupied or disabled. • Instead of typing commands, the user can simply speak into a headset. • Increasingly, however, as the cost decreases and performance improves, speech recognition systems are entering the mainstream and are being used as an alternative to keyboards. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    43. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • ParallelProcessing • The simultaneous use of more than one CPU to execute a program. • Ideally, parallel processing makes a program run faster because there are more engines (CPUs) running it. • In practice, it is often difficult to divide a program in such a way that separate CPUs can execute different portions without interfering with each other. • Most computers have just one CPU, but some models have several. There are even computers with thousands of CPUs. • With single-CPU computers, it is possible to perform parallel processing by connecting the computers in a network. • However, this type of parallel processing requires very sophisticated software called distributed processing software. • Notethat parallel processing differs from multitasking, in which a single CPU executes several programs at once. • Parallel processing is also called parallel computing. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    44. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • QuantumComputing • First proposed in the 1970s, quantum computing relies on quantum physics by taking advantage of certain quantum physics properties of atoms or nuclei that allow them to work together as quantum bits, or qubits, to be the computer's processor and memory. • By interacting with each other while being isolated from the external environment, qubits can perform certain calculations exponentially faster than conventional computers. • Qubits do not rely on the traditional binary nature of computing. • While traditional computers encode information into bits using binary numbers, either a 0 or 1, and can only do calculations on one set of numbers at once, quantum computers encode information as a series of quantum-mechanical states such as spin directions of electrons or polarization orientations of a photon that might represent a 1 or a 0, might represent a combination of the two or might represent a number expressing that the state of the qubit is somewhere between 1 and 0, or a superposition of many different numbers at once. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    45. QuantumComputing • A quantum computer can do an arbitrary reversible classical computation on all the numbers simultaneously, which a binary system cannot do, and also has some ability to produce interference between various different numbers. • By doing a computation on many different numbers at once, then interfering the results to get a single answer, a quantum computer has the potential to be much more powerful than a classical computer of the same size. • In using only a single processing unit, a quantum computer can naturally perform myriad operations in parallel. • Quantum computing is not well suited for tasks such as word processing and email, but it is ideal for tasks such as cryptography and modeling and indexing very large databases. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    46. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • Nanotechnology • A field of science whose goal is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. • Current manufacturing processes use lithography to imprint circuits on semiconductor materials. • While lithography has improved dramatically over the last two decades -- to the point where some manufacturing plants can produce circuits smaller than one micron (1,000 nanometers) -- it still deals with aggregates of millions of atoms. • It is widely believed that lithography is quickly approaching its physical limits. • To continue reducing the size of semiconductors, new technologies that juggle individual atoms will be necessary. • This is the realm of nanotechnology. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    47. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • Nanotechnology • Although research in this field dates back to Richard P.Feynman's classic talk in 1959, the term nanotechnology was first coined by K. Eric Drexler in 1986 in the book Engines of Creation. • In the popular press, the term nanotechnology is sometimes used to refer to any sub-micron process, including lithography. • Because of this, many scientists are beginning to use the term molecular nanotechnology when talking about true nanotechnology at the molecular level. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    48. Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)The Age of Artificial Intelligence • NaturalLanguage • A human language. • For example, English, French, and Chinese are natural languages. • Computer languages, such as FORTRAN and C, are not. • Probably the single most challenging problem in computer science is to develop computers that can understand natural languages. • So far, the complete solution to this problem has proved elusive, although a great deal of progress has been made. • Fourth-generation languages are the programming languages closest to natural languages. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    49. Summary of the Trend in the Development of Computers • The computers are getting smaller in volume and size. • They dissipate less heat. • They consume less power. • They have large memory capacity. • They have n=better execution speed and power. • The computers are getting more reliable. • They became more affordable and user friendly. Mishqen College Department of ICT

    50. Types of Computers(Based on Capacity, speed and reliability) • Microcomputers (Personal Computers) • Palmtop Computers • Laptop Computers • Desktop computers • Minicomputers • Mainframes • Supercomputers Mishqen College Department of ICT