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End of the 19 th century & beginning of the 20 th century modern art

End of the 19 th century & beginning of the 20 th century modern art

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End of the 19 th century & beginning of the 20 th century modern art

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  1. End of the 19th century & beginning of the 20th century modern art

  2. Impressionism 1860s - 1900s

  3. Background to the Impressionist Period • Began in the 1860s • Centered in Paris around a loose collective of artists/friends • Term “impressionists” coined as an insult of the painter Claude Monet’s Impression – Sunrise (1872) • Argued that their paintings were just “impressions” or sketches, not real paintings • Impressionist style spread to music and literature as well as visual arts • Beginning of modern art? • Incredibly popular today • 6 of 10 most expensive paintings are Impressionist or Post-Impressionist painters

  4. A Critic of the Impressionists • “Impression — I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it … and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.”

  5. Background to the Impressionist Period • Impressionists were rebels • Napoleon III’s Academie des Beaux-Arts controlled the world of French painting (both content and style) • They wanted historical/religious themes, realistic depictions and portraits • Each year it held a salon • The rebellious painters were rejected each year • Eventually they were allowed to have their own salon (salon des refuses) in 1863 • Afterwards they were further rejected, so by 1873 they started their own “society”

  6. Characteristics of Impressionist Art • Broad quick brush strokes (to capture the “essence” of the subject) • Emphasized overall “impression” of the scene rather than specific details • Examined the effect of light and color on a scene • Painted landscapes • Painted candid portraits and depictions of regular life • Emphasized spontaneity, bright color, and light

  7. Characteristics of Impressionist Art • Mix wet paint together to create shadows, greys • Otherwise, very little mixing of colors (The blending is in the eye of the viewer) • Opaque surfaces to the painting • Paint at different times of day (including evening) • No harsh lines • Emphasize natural light • Naturalistic scenes of everyday life, people and landscapes

  8. Characteristics of Impressionist Art • Impressionist style was not “brand new” • Just anti-establishment • NOTE: Impressionism was not a rebellion against photographic “realism”. Impressionists were inspired by photography • Wanted to capture intimate day-to-day moments in life • They explored what photography lacked (i.e. color) • Spiritual forefathers include: • Diego Velasquez • Peter Paul Rubens • J.M.W. Turner • Eugene Delacroix • Gustave Courbet

  9. “Pure” Impressionists

  10. Camille Pissarro (1830 - 1903)

  11. Camille Pissarro • “Father” of the impressionists • Rebelled against the Salons in France • Great supporter of younger artists like Cezanne, Gaugin and Seurat, even post-impressionists like Henri Matisse • Saw his painting as a continued expression of freedom vs. control of government, society • Hard to categorize his art into neat chronologies (early, middle, late)

  12. Norwood (1871)

  13. The Rainbow (1877)

  14. Hoarfrost (1877)

  15. Peasant Girl Drinking her Coffee (1881)

  16. Boulevard Montmartre, Night (1897)

  17. Boulevard Montmartre, Rainy (1897)

  18. Boulevard Montmartre, Afternoon (1897)

  19. Claude Monet (1840 – 1926)

  20. Claude Monet • Perhaps the most famous impressionist painter • “pure” impressionist who moved the art style forward into the 1900s • Famous for painting the same scene at different times of day or seasons • Most famous for his “water lily” paintings

  21. The Bodmer Oak, Fontainebleu Forest (1865)

  22. Haystacks at Sunrise (1865)

  23. Garden at Sainte Adresse (1867)

  24. The Magpie (1869)

  25. The Beach at Trouville (1870)

  26. Gare St. Lazare (1877)

  27. The Stroll, Camille Monet and her son Jean (1875)

  28. The Cliffs at Eretat (1885)

  29. Wheatstacks (End of Summer) (1890-91)

  30. Bridge Over a Pond of Water Lilies (1899)

  31. Houses of Parliament, Sunset (1904)

  32. Water Lilies (The Clouds) (1903)

  33. Water Lilies (1907)

  34. Water Lilies (1916)

  35. Pierre-August Renoir (1841 – 1919)

  36. Pierre-August Renoir • Worked closely with Monet throughout the 1880s • Lots of paintings of modernized Paris • Scenes of middle-class leisure • Painted lots of nudes

  37. Nini in the Garden (1875 – 76)

  38. Dance at Le Moulin la Galette(1876)

  39. Gypsy Girl (1879)

  40. Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881)

  41. On the Terrace (1881)

  42. Other Impressionists

  43. EdouardManet(1832 - 1883)

  44. EdouardManet • Never regarded himself as an impressionist • His early nudes shocked critics • “Who’s for lunch?” - about Luncheon in the Grass (1863) • His early paintings set the stage for Impressionism

  45. Absinthe Drinker (1858)

  46. Luncheon in the Grass (1863)

  47. Olympia (1863)

  48. The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (1868)

  49. A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres (1881 - 82)

  50. Edgar Degas (1834 - 1917)