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Topic 13 Modern Christianity. 17 th century 18 th century 19 th century 20 th century. I. The 17 th Century . Religious conflicts Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) Protestants vs. Catholics
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Topic 13Modern Christianity • 17th century • 18th century • 19th century • 20th century
I. The 17th Century • Religious conflicts • Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) • Protestants vs. Catholics • Began with Defenestration of Prague – Protestant protesters tossed 2 Catholic royal advisors out of window – fell in dung pile. • War engulfed Europe. • Peace of Westphalia (1648) • Agreed to quit fighting. • Granted religious freedom for Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists (not Anabaptists). • French persecution • Protestantism was outlawed in 1685. • Huguenots (French Reformed) were persecuted terribly; many fled.
I. The 17th Century • Developments in English Protestantism • Puritans • Group in Anglican Church which thought Anglican reform did not go far enough; many were influenced by Calvinism. • Wanted to purge Anglican church of remaining Catholic trappings. • Wanted to purge society of immorality (heavy drinking, gambling, frivolous games, etc.). • Separatists • Radical Puritans who withdrew from Anglican Church (gave up on reform from within). • Set up separate churches to implement reforms.
Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock I. The 17th Century B. Developments in English Protestantism – cont. • Persecution by James I – many fled • 1620 – Plymouth Colony – Separatists • 1630 – Massachusetts Bay Colony – Puritans • Baptists – emerged out of Separatist movement • John Smyth – Separatist pastor • Fled to Amsterdam – influenced by Anabaptists. • 1609 – adopted believer’s baptism – first English-speaking Baptist church. • Thomas Helwys • 1612 – led part of group back to London – first Baptist church on English soil. • Booklet outlining Baptist principles: believer’s baptism; general atonement (Christ died for all people); religious freedom for all; separation of church and state; etc.. 5. Act of Toleration (1689) – ended persecution; granted toleration to most dissident groups.
I. The 17th Century • Controversy in Reformed Church:Calvinismvs. Arminianism • Hard-line Calvinist predestination – TULIP (p. 177): T – Total depravity U – Unconditional election L – Limited atonement I – Irresistible grace P – Perseverance of the saints • Arminianism – Jacob Arminius: Dutch Reformed theologian; opposed strict Calvinist predestination; wanted more room for human free will. • Christ died for all (general atonement). • Grace can be accepted or rejected by anyone. • Believers can fall from grace.
I. The 17th Century • Arminianism vs. Calvinism – cont. 3. Synod of Dort (1618-19) • Rejected Arminianism. • Affirmed “5-point” Calvinism. • Influence • Presbyterians / Reformed – Calvinistic • Methodists – Arminian • Baptists – mixed
Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Thomas Jefferson I. The 17th Century • The Enlightenment • Age of Reason • Scientific knowledge – based on observation and reason. • Natural law – world operates by laws of nature, like a machine. • Deism – rational religion, consistent with reason • Lord Herbert of Cherbury – father of Deism; blended religion and Enlightenment rationalism. • Major tenets of Deism: • God created universe to operate by laws of nature. • Skeptical of miracles. • Rejected idea of Trinity. • Jesus not divine, but a great moral teacher. • Questioned inspiration of Bible. • Most of the “founding fathers” of U. S. A. were Deists.
II. The 18th Century Three evangelical movements reacting against “Protestant rationalism” (i.e., emphasis on dry, intellectual doctrine). • Pietism – Germany – 3 key leaders • Philipp Jakob Spener – founder • Sought revival of Lutheran Church. • Needed “religion of heart” as well as head. • Organized small groups for prayer and Bible study. • Wrote Pia Desideria (1675) – primary source for Pietist principles. • August Hermann Francke • Professor at Univ. of Halle. • Turned Halle into Pietist training center. • Count Zinzendorf • Sheltered Moravian refugees on his estate. • Organized into Pietist community. • Became Moravian Church (1727); sent missionaries out. • Stressed emotional conversion & personal relationship with Christ.
II. The 18th Century • Methodism – England • Founded in England by John Wesley (and Charles) • Students at Oxford – nicknamed “methodists” • Mission to Georgia – contact with Moravians • “Conversion” (1738) • Moravian Church service in London. • “I felt my heart strangely warmed.” • Preaching • Sought revival within Anglican Church. • Necessity of personal conversion and sanctified living. • Preached outdoors to large crowds. • Methodist Church separated in 1795. • America • Methodism grew rapidly. • “Circuit riders” like Francis Asbury.
II. The 18th Century C. First Great Awakening – Colonial America • Jonathan Edwards • Congregationalist pastor in Mass.; began insisting on necessity of emotional conversion experience. • Led great revival in 1734-35; hundreds of conversions. • Many learned theological works. • George Whitefield • Traveling evangelist from England; formerly associated with Wesley (broke over Calvinism; Wesley was Arminian). • Famous for outdoor preaching. • Several tours of colonies. • Results • Growth in church membership. • Division over emotional excesses. • Helped unify colonies; prepared for Revolution.
III. The 19th Century • Second Great Awakening • Charles Grandison Finney • Techniques of revival meetings (“new measures”). • Protracted meetings; advertising; praying for sinners by name; anxious bench; etc. • Many imitators; churches grew. • Founded Oberlin College – first coed college in America. • Frontier revivalism • Traveling evangelists followed settlers westward. • “Camp meetings” – settlers came from miles around; camped for weeks. • Results • Church growth, esp. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians. • Movements aimed at social evils: temperance in alcohol use, poverty relief, abolition of slavery.
III. The 19th Century B. Modern missions movement • William Carey • English Baptist cobbler – self-educated. • 1792 – published call to take gospel to world. • Baptist Missionary Society – sent Carey to India. • Adoniram and Ann Judson • Congregationalist missionaries to India – became Baptist en route; no support. • Friend, Luther Rice, returned and organized Baptist support. • Triennial Convention (1814) – Baptist organization for mission support. • Results • By end of century, most denominations had mission societies. • Missionaries around the world: Africa, Asia, Central and South America.
III. The 19th Century • Slavery issue • Abolitionist movement divided churches as well as the nation. • Many northern preachers decried evils of slavery, called for abolition. • Many southern preachers defended slavery. • Many denominations formally split into Northern and Southern bodies. • Southern Baptist Convention – formed in 1845 when Triennial Convention refused to appoint missionaries who owned slaves.
Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925) Charles Darwin III. The 19th Century • Liberalism and Fundamentalism • Both were reactions to “Modernism.” • New sciences challenging religion. • Darwin’s theory of evolution; geology; archaeology; historiography; etc. • Varied Christian reactions: some embraced modern thought; others rejected it.
Julius Wellhausen III. The 19th Century • Liberalism and Fundamentalism – cont. • “Liberal” Protestant theology • Friedrich Schleiermacher • “Father” of Liberal theology. • Essence of Christianity is feeling of “absolute dependence” on God; specific doctrines are negotiable. • Liberal theology • Universal Fatherhood of God – God is Father of all people. • Innate goodness of man – task of religion is to tap that goodness and develop it. • Kingdom of God is being achieved through progress of Christian culture. • Historical criticism of Bible (“higher criticism”) • Studied Bible with same methods as other literature: written by human authors, influenced by their culture, etc. • Documentary hypothesis of Pentateuch: multiple authors, evolved over several centuries (Julius Wellhausen). • Two-source theory of Gospels: Mark and Q used by Matt. and Lk. • Questioned historical/scientific accuracy of Bible.
III. The 19th Century • Liberalism and Fundamentalism – cont. • Fundamentalism • Conservative reaction against modern science (evolution), Liberal theology, and biblical criticism. • Five fundamentals of the faith (cannot be compromised) • Inerrancy of the Bible (verbal inspiration) • Virgin birth of Jesus • Substitutionary atonement (or “satisfaction” theory) • Physical, bodily resurrection of Jesus • Visible second coming of Christ (premillennial) • Catholic anti-modernism • “Syllabus of Errors” (1864) – condemned various “modernisms”: liberalism, socialism, modern science, biblical studies, democracy, freedom of thought, and religious liberty. • Vatican Council I (1870) – declared “papal infallibility .”
IV. The 20th Century • “Social Gospel” movement • Applied power of gospel to social problems stemming from Industrial Revolution – poverty; poor working/living conditions; child labor; etc. • Walter Rauschenbusch – German Baptist pastor in slums of NYC; saw poverty at its worst; challenged churches to organize against it. • A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917): • Building Kingdom of God takes more than conversion of individuals. • Churches must also work to transform social structures to get rid of systemic injustice. • Advocated legislation to force better wages, working conditions, housing; ban child labor; etc.
Karl Barth Dietrich Bonhoeffer (another leader in Confessing Church) – Imprisoned by Nazis for plot against Hitler; executed shortly before Allied victory; wrote The Cost of Discipleship. IV. The 20th Century B. Neo-orthodoxy • Optimism of Liberal theology was shattered by horrors of WW I (and Holocaust; WW II). • “Neo-orthodoxy” was a theological movement which returned to a more traditional style of theology. • Emphasized depth of human sin and need for divine redemption. • Remained open to modern science and biblical criticism. • “Father of Neo-orthodoxy” was Karl Barth • Commentary on Romans,1918. • Most influential theologian of 20th century. • Helped organize “Confessing Church” movement which opposed Nazism.
Pope John XXIII IV. The 20th Century • Vatican Council II (1962-65) • Convened by Pope John XXIII. • Opened Catholic church to modern world. • Examples of some measures: • Declared right of religious freedom. • Allowed Mass in vernacular. • Encouraged more participation of laity. • Encouraged critical Bible study. • Declared openness to dialogue with other denominations; etc. • Ecumenical movement • Seeks cooperation and unity among Christian denominations. • World Council of Churches (1948) – sponsors Bible translation (RSV; NRSV); coordination of mission work; dialogue over doctrinal differences; etc.
IV. The 20th Century • Evangelicalism • Conservative movement less rigid than Fundamentalism. • Theological emphases: • Authority of Bible • Saving death of Christ • Personal conversion experience • Personal evangelism • Effective use of radio and TV. • Most visible advocate is Billy Graham.
IV. The 20th Century • Pentecostalism (sometimes called “charismatic movement”) • Movement that emphasizes experience of being filled by Holy Spirit (like early church on Pentecost in Acts 2). • Manifested in overt signs – tongue-speaking; prophecy; healing; body movements (swaying, hand-lifting, dancing, falling down, etc.). • Origin in Azusa Street Revival – Los Angeles (1906). • Rapid growth in last quarter of century, esp. in Latin America and other Third-World countries. • Appeal: emotional services; racial, ethnic, social, gender inclusiveness.