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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Theory and Research Dr. Arra Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Philosophies of Childhood • John Locke – (1632 -1704) • 17th century British Philosopher • Writings served as a forerunner for 20th century behaviorism • Forerunner of mechanistic model (views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli)

  3. Locke • Viewed the child as a tabula rasa or blank slate • Children begin with nothing at all, and it is experiences that shape their development • Nurture • Parents mold and shape children

  4. Early Theory • Jean Rousseau (1712-1778) • French Philosopher • Children are not blank slates • Genetics or nature that determines development • Children determine their own destinies • Forerunner to organismic model (development initiated by an active organism)

  5. Theoretical Perspectives • psychoanalytic • learning • cognitive Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perspective 1: Psychoanalytic • Sigmund Freud and psychosexual development • Erik Erikson and psychosocial development Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mid-Twentieth Century Theories • Freud’s psychosexual theory – emphasizes that how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development.

  8. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • Oral (0-1) If needs not met overeating, smoking, nail biting • Anal (1-3) excessive orderliness • Phallic (3-6) Oedipus, Electra • Latency (6-11) • Genital (Adolescence)

  9. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Theory emphasizes that at each stage an individual acquires attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society

  10. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) attachment, waiting too long for comfort • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3) choose and decide for themselves, or are stifled by parents • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6) develop responsibility, overcontrolling parents lead to guilt

  11. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Industry vs. Diffusion (6-11) children become industrious at school, feel incompetent at school due to negative experiences • Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence) Who am I?, confusion about future adult roles • Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood) establish intimate ties, remain isolated

  12. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) giving back to the next generation, absence of meaningful accomplishment • Ego Integrity vs. Despair ( Old age) reflect on life; integrity- life worth living dissatisfied- fear death

  13. Perspective 2: Learning • behaviorism • classical conditioning (Pavlov; genetic/reflexive behaviors) • operant conditioning (reinforcement, punishment, s>r model, schedules of reinforcement, types of reinforcers) • social learning theory (attend, reproduce, maintain, motivation) • Bandura – observing, imitating, modeling Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspective 3: Cognitive • Jean Piaget’s cognitive-stage theory • Information-Processing Approach input>storage>retrieval Cal Tech 1950’s Beginning of Cognitive Movement Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor (0-2) • Preoperational (2-7) • Concrete Operations (7-11) NOT EGOCENTRIC • Formal operations (11>)

  16. Piaget • Scheme – organized patterns of behavior • Assimilation – incorporating information into an existing scheme • Accomodation – changing schemes to fit new information • Equilibration • operations

  17. Perspective 5: Contextual • Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Learning is socially embedded • ZPD • Scaffolding • Cognitive • Children learn from adults and children learn in social settings Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research Methods How do developmental scientists study people? Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Research Methods • quantitative research • scientific method • identify problem • formulate hypothesis • collect data • analyze data • disseminate findings Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research Methods • quantitative research • scientific method • qualitative research • open-ended • exploratory Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  21. Research Methods • Forms of Data Collection • self reports • behavioral and performance measures • naturalistic and laboratory observation • Interviews • questionnaires Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  22. Basic Research Designs • Case Study • Ethnographic Study • Correlational Study • Naturalistic Observations Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  23. Basic Research Designs • Longitudinal Design • Cross-sectional design • Case study • Correlational design • Structured observation

  24. Basic Research Designs • Experimental design independent variable dependent variable control group random assignment results are causative in nature

  25. Basic Research Designs • Quasi- experimental design

  26. Developmental Research Designs • Longitudinal • Cross-Sectional • Sequential • Microgenetic Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  27. Rights of Participants in Research Informed consent Avoidance of deception Privacy and confidentiality Protection from harm Knowledge of results Ethics of Research Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  28. Windowon the World The Cultural Context: Purposes of Cross-Cultural Research Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.