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Seminar 228.443: Language & Culture Advertising. Dr. Teri Shaffer Interim Director of the MBA Program Associate Professor of Marketing. Sources of Information. Bergh and Katz (1999), Advertising Principles: Choice, Challenge, and Change , NTC Business Books.

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Seminar 228.443: Language & Culture Advertising

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seminar 228 443 language culture advertising

Seminar 228.443:Language & Culture Advertising

Dr. Teri Shaffer

Interim Director of theMBA Program

Associate Professor of Marketing

sources of information
Sources of Information
  • Bergh and Katz (1999), Advertising Principles: Choice, Challenge, and Change, NTC Business Books.
  • Wells, Burnett, & Moriarty (2000), Advertising: Principles and Practice
  • Marketing & advertising connection
  • Integrated marketing communications(IMC)
  • Case study: IMC campaign
what is marketing
What Is Marketing?

The American Marketing Association Defines Marketing as the Process of Planning and Executing the Conception, Pricing, Promotion, and Distribution of Ideas, Goods, and Services to Create Exchanges That Satisfy the Perceived Needs, Wants, and Objectives of the Customer and the Organization.

marketing concept
Marketing Concept
  • Step 1: determine what the customer needs and wants.
  • Step 2: develop, manufacture, market, and service the goods/services that fill those particular needs and wants.
four tools of marketing
Four Tools of Marketing

Wells, Burnett, Moriarty 2000

integrated marketing communications imc
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
  • Practice of unifying all marketing communication tools
  • To communicate in a consistent way
  • To & with stakeholder audiences
marketing communications
Marketing Communications
  • Former times: everybody did their own thing!!
  • Today:all parties must blend their efforts into producing coordinated marketing communication.
the structure of a campaign plan
The Structure of a Campaign Plan
  • Campaign is complex set of coordinated activities
  • Set of objectives
  • Short-term plan (1 year)
imc campaign outline
IMC Campaign Outline
  • I. Situation analysis
  • II. SWOT analysis
  • III. Campaign strategy
  • IV Media plan
  • V. Marketing communications activities
  • VI. Appropriation & budget
i situation analysis

Product & Company

Consumer & Stakeholder

Market Analysis

The Most Important Research Areas Are:

Competitive Analysis

Industry Analysis

Marketplace Analysis

I. Situation Analysis
ii swot analysis



Strengths &





& Threats

II. SWOT Analysis



iii campaign strategy

Key Strategic Decisions

III. Campaign Strategy


Target Audiences

Positioning Strategy

Scheduling Strategy

iv media plan
IV. Media Plan
  • Media objectives (reach,frequency)
  • Media strategies (targeting, continuity, timing)
  • Media selection (specific vehicles)
  • Geographic strategies
  • Schedules
  • Media budget
v marketing communication activities
V. Marketing Communication Activities
  • Sales promotions
  • Trade promotions
  • Direct marketing
  • Public relations & publicity
appropriation and budget

Governs all

Strategic Decisions.

Amount of Money Available

Determine the General Scope

Appropriation and Budget

Allocated Across

Communication Activities.

evaluating the campaign plan
Evaluating the Campaign Plan
  • Most important step
  • Evaluate effectiveness against objectives
imc example bellsouth yellow pages
IMC Example: BellSouth Yellow Pages

Wells, Burnett, Moriarty 2000

competitive environment
Competitive Environment
  • Megamergers & deregulation in telecommunications
  • Directories proliferated
bellsouth yellow pages
BellSouth Yellow Pages
  • Mid-1990s
  • Complete review of its brand equity & awareness
bellsouth yellow pages21
BellSouth Yellow Pages
  • Basis for developing competitive advantage over other directories
  • Needed a new branding strategy to overcome consumer confusion & build credibility
  • Two companies
  • South Bell serving eastern southern states
  • South Central Bell serving south central southern states
  • 550 cities and towns
  • 9 state region
  • Generating $1.7 billion in revenue
  • Renamed South Bell & South Central Bell to BellSouth
  • Hired WestWayne advertising agency of Atlanta to develop new positioning IMC campaign
  • Dixie Carter, Designing Women television series
  • Remodeling project
umbrella theme
Umbrella Theme
  • “Start with the one you know.”
  • Idea was to create an image of a dependable old friend
bellsouth campaign strategy
BellSouth Campaign Strategy
  • Objectives
  • Targeting
  • Positioning
  • Scheduling
objective 1
Objective #1
  • Introduce new brand, BellSouth Yellow Pages
  • 50% unaided brand awareness in first year
  • 80% aided brand awareness in first year
objective 2
Objective #2
  • Communicate new brand positioning effectively
  • Exceed Communicus, Inc. research company’s unaided recall norm of 14%
objective 3
Objective #3
  • To improve consumer usage share above 85 percent
objective 4
Objective #4
  • To meet or exceed a revenue increase goal of 2.6%
target markets
Target Markets
  • Demographic
  • Adults 25 to 54 years
  • Skewed toward women
  • Psychographics (51% of usage)
  • “Enthusiastic Brand Shoppers”
  • “Product Value Shoppers”
  • “New Attitude Shoppers”
  • Two companies, South Bell & South Central Bell were being brought together
  • Campaign designed to communicate new brand position for Yellow Pages
  • “The most proven & dependable source of local buying information” in the South
  • Creative idea: design it as a serial, similar to a soap opera
  • 11 commercials of Dixie’s efforts to renovate her river retreat
  • She demonstrates the value of the BellSouth Yellow Pages to help her find contractors and materials
communication strategy
Communication Strategy
  • Message development research
  • Creative theme
  • Creative tactics and executions
message development research
Message Development Research
  • 21 different campaign concepts were presented to client
  • 8 were selected for qualitative testing in 7 key markets across various target markets
  • Only the “Dixie Carter” concept performed well
message development research37
Message Development Research
  • Copy tested by Diagnostic Research, Inc. (DRI)
  • 3 rough TV executions to evaluate series of “episodes”
message development research38
Message Development Research
  • Campaign achieved highest copy-testing scores for the BellSouth corporation
  • Among 5 highest scores ever for DRI
  • 300% above norm
creative theme
Creative Theme
  • Campaign is series of ads built around a central theme or big idea
  • Theme creates synergy that comes from using different messages for different audiences in different media
  • Synergy intensifies impact
  • Impact is created by repetition
  • But need variety to make it interesting
  • Serialization of the story
  • Over 2 year period from 1996 ran 10 different television commercials
continuity devices
Continuity Devices
  • Create link from ad to ad
  • Characters
  • Jolly Green Giant
  • Pillsbury Doughboy
  • Taco Bell dog
  • Dixie Carter
continuity devices42
Continuity Devices
  • Slogans
  • “The Pepsi Generation” (1960s-70s)
  • “The Choice of a New Generation” (1980s)
  • “Gotta Have It” (early 1990s)
  • “Be Young. Have Fun.” (mid to late1990s)
image transfer
Image Transfer
  • Ad in one medium
  • Stimulates listener to think of ad in another medium
  • Cheaper medium (radio, outdoor) can be used to remind people of message delivered in more expensive medium (TV)
creative tactics
Creative Tactics
  • Two steps
  • Creative strategy
  • What the message says
  • Tactics
  • How message will be executed
media plan
Media Plan
  • Developed simultaneously with creative plan
  • Based on available $
  • Best combination of media vehicles
  • Awareness problem
  • Widespread mass media
  • Trial problem
  • POP sales promotions
  • Reach small niche
  • Direct mail or Internet
media objectives
Media Objectives
  • Reach
  • Frequency
  • 3 psychographic segments
  • These segments may use different media
  • Specific TV programming and dayparts
  • 40% Prime
  • 25% Early am/daytime
  • 20% Early news
  • 15% Late news
bellsouth tv ads
BellSouth TV Ads
  • :60 second TV“Dixie Serial Introduction”
  • :30 second TV“Kitchen/Outside Atlanta/Internet Address”
bellsouth yellow pages52

BellSouth Yellow Pages


Dixie Carter Television Series

  • Radio formats
  • Lifestyle magazines
  • Daily newspapers
bellsouth radio
BellSouth Radio
  • :60 Radio
  • Vacation/Real Talking Ads
other communication tools
Other Communication Tools
  • Dixie Carter was integrated into all activities
  • B2B sales support campaign targeted at business owners
  • New interactive Web site, the Yellow Pages OnLine, used direct mail and newspaper ads
  • Donut TV ads for cooperative adv (local information such as store name & location)
  • Advertising kit for Yellow Pages sales representatives
appropriation budget
Appropriation & Budget
  • Varies greatly
  • BellSouth was mid-sized at $12 million
evaluating the campaign
Evaluating the Campaign
  • Measure effectiveness against objectives
objective 161
Objective 1
  • Introduce a new brand name
  • 11 mo later, tracking study by Hazelton research firm
  • 64% unaided brand awareness (goal 50%)
  • 92% aided brand awareness (goal 80%)
objective 262
Objective 2
  • Communicate new brand positioning
  • Tracking study by Communicus Inc.
  • Unaided advertising recall was 32%
  • Industry norm of 14% (goal)
  • Exceeds norm by 285%
  • Aided recall was 79%
  • Campaign & Dixie’s likability & believability significantly above norms
objective 363
Objective 3
  • Improve usage share above 85%
  • Quarterly Performance Report by the Yellow Pages Association
  • Usage share was 87.1%
objective 464
Objective 4
  • Increase revenues by 2.6%
  • Increase 3.9% (50% above objective)
additional research
Additional Research
  • Millward Brown International
  • Consumer & business attitudes
  • More positive for BellSouth
  • Than for AT&T, MCI, & Sprint