World War II through Vietnam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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World War II through Vietnam

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  1. World War II through Vietnam THE BLITZ Test Monday!!

  2. A. Philip Randolph

  3. A. Philip Randolph– Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters • March on Washington: • FDR’s response:

  4. Mid 1941 – creation of the Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD) • Developed radar and sonar • Encouraged pesticides (DDT) & miracle drugs (penicillin) • Most Important: Manhattan Project (1942) – building an atomic bomb.

  5. Pearl Harbor • Dec. 7, 1941 • Japanese attack on Hawaiian naval base. • Trying to prevent US ability to wage war. • Significance: Pulls the US into the War.

  6. US Response: • Japanese American Internment. • Korematsu vs. the US (1944) – interning the Japanese was a “military necessity.” 

  7. Mobilization for War • Selective Service – expanded the draft, provided for another 10 million. • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) – women in non-combat positions.

  8. US government gets bigger!!!!! • Office of Price Administration – fought inflation. • Set up rationing • C Books • War Production Board – decided which companies would convert from peacetime to war production & allocated raw materials. • Organized recycling drives.

  9. War in Europe • German “wolf packs” • B. of Stalingrad – Soviets pushed Germans into a retreat back west across Europe. TURNING POINT.

  10. War in Europe • D Day (June 6, 1944) • Aka “Operation Overlord” • Largest seaborne invasion. • Objective – free France & west Europe from Nazis. • Commanded by Eisenhower. • Allies get the “geographic advantage.” • Patton led US forces into France.

  11. Meeting at the Elbe • Soviets pushed West • Americans pushed East. May 8, VE Day Liberation of the concentration camps

  12. Nuremberg Trials (1945 – 1949) • Nazi officials tried for “crimes against humanity.” • 12 executed. • Important principle – Individuals are responsible for their own actions, even in war.

  13. Meanwhile in the Pacific Theater….

  14. Bataan Death March • March of US and Filipino prisoners of war by the Japanese that occurred after the Japanese conquered the Philippines at the beginning of WWII. Many prisoners died along the way. Those responsible for the death march were later tried and executed for war crimes after the war.

  15. Battle of Midway • Battle of Midway – US Admiral Nimitz “avenges Pearl Harbor” • Turning Point – US stopped Japan’s Eastern March. • Began US Island hopping.

  16. Navajo Code Talkers

  17. Pacific Theater Battles • B. of Layette Gulf (1944)– Kamikaze (suicide bomber) planes. • We won. • B. of Iwo Jima & Okinawa (1944) – we won, but at heavy costs.

  18. Atomic Bombs • Los Alamos, New Mexico – first test (July, 1945) • We then warned Japan if they didn’t surrender they would face “prompt and utter destruction.”

  19. Atomic bombs • August 6, 1945 – “Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima. • August 9, 1945 – “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki. • August 14, 1945 – VJ Day.

  20. Now what???? Yalta, Feb. 1945 Potsdam, July, 1945

  21. Yalta, Feb. 1945 • Big 3: Stalin, FDR, Churchill. • Big decisions • 1) Temporary (?) division of Germany into 4 zones. • 2) Stalin Promised “free elections” in Poland & E. Europe. • FDR wanted Stalin’s support for the UN.

  22. German Division

  23. Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) • Big 3: Atlee, Truman & Stalin • Unconditional Surrender for Japan • Democratic country’s boundaries were to be reestablished • Nuremburg Trials • Truman and Stalin clearly did not trust each other.

  24. Occupation of Japan • MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers , heads the 7-year occupation of Japan. • Government & economic restructuring. • Set them on a path to incredible recovery.

  25. Containment • Feb, 1946 – Sec of State George Kennan announced the US policy of “containment” – preventing the spread of communism beyond its boarders. • Iron Curtain (so deemed by Churchill) – dividing line between communist East and non-communist west).

  26. Examples of Containment • 1) Truman Doctrine – US sent economic and military aid to Greece & Turkey to prevent a communist takeover. • 2) Marshall Plan – We dumped all kinds of money on Western Europe to prevent them from communism.

  27. Examples of Containment • 3) Berlin Airlift – Berlin had been divided. • Stalin tried to blockade W. Berlin to starve them into submitting to E. Berlin. • US & BR dropped in TONS of food & supplies. • Shows our greatest weapon: $$$$$$ • 4) Korea & Vietnam

  28. NATO • 12 Nations form a defensive military alliance. • 1st time Americans ever made a defensive alliance in peace time. • Soviet collective security agreement was called the Warsaw Pact.

  29. CHINA • Fell to Communism under Red Army leader Mao Zedong. • We gave Chinese nationalists aid, but did not send troops. • We were stunned that containment didn’t work!!!

  30. China • Fear of the Domino Theory – if one nation fell to communism, they’d all fall (particularly in Asia) (gets us into Korea & Vietnam Wars).

  31. Korean “Police Action” (1950 – 1953) • Korea had been split at the 38th parallel – North controlled by the USSR, South by the US. • June 25, 1950 – North invades south, starting war. • UN (under the command of McArthur) to prevent a communist takeover in the South.

  32. Korean “Police Action” (1950 – 1953) • MacArthur wanted to use nukes against China, Truman refused. • Truman eventually fired MacArthur. • USSR & US agreed to a ceasefire and a demilitarized zone at the 38th parallel. • North, controlled by Kim Il Sung • South by Sigmund Reh.

  33. Meanwhile, we were freaking out at home about Communists among us…. • (1) House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – investigated communist influences. • Hollywood 10 – 10 witnesses who refused to cooperate and were blacklisted.

  34. Meanwhile, we were freaking out at home…. • (2) Spy cases: • Alger Hiss – Soviet Spy - jailed • Julius & Ethel Rosenberg – Passed atomic bomb secrets to USSR – electrocuted.

  35. Meanwhile, we were freaking out at home…. • (3) McCarthyism – Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy – unsubstantiated accusations of communist activity in US Army and government. • Downfall – accused people in the army, led to a televised Senate investigation.

  36. Dwight Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) • Eisenhower and Sec. of State John Foster Dulles were staunchly anti-Communist. • Suez War (1955) – Egypt took over the Suez Canal. Egypt had ties to the USSR and we were afraid this would lead to a Soviet takeover of the Middle East. • Eisenhower Doctrine – US would defend any Middle Eastern country from a communist threat.

  37. US in the 1950s We were $$$$$$. Truman and Civil Rights – Truman issued an executive order to integrate the armed forces and end discrimination in gov. hiring.

  38. 1948 Election • Democrats nominated Truman, Dixiecrats (States Rights Democrats) nominated Strom Thurmond (SC), Republicans nominated Gov. Dewey. • Truman won, but it was close!!

  39. Harry S. Truman (1945 – 1953) • Fair Deal - Continuation of FDR’s new deal, with national health insurance and crop subsidies thrown in. • Other import Truman stuff: • Integration of Armed forces • Stalemate in Korea • Firing McArthur • Rising McCarthism

  40. Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) • Brinkmanship – willingness to go right to the edge of war. • Arms Race – trying to get to “the super” • Hydrogen Bomb – US had one in 1952, USSR in 1953. • Eisenhower Doctrine • Brown vs. Board (1954) • Rosa Parks arrested (1955) • Space Race – Sputnik (1957) – first satellite (SOVIET!)

  41. Eisenhower (1953 – 1961) • Interstate Highway Act (1956) – concern about possible nuclear strike, provided for mobility, expansion of suburbs • U2 Incident – US pilot Gary Powers shot down over Soviet Union – proved we were spying on them too.

  42. Meanwhile back at home…. • Defense industries boomed, • Women had jobs. • Population shifts north and west. • GI Bill of Rights paid for education, training and housing loans for Veterans. • Race Riots.

  43. More life in the 1950s • Baby boom!! • Salk’s polio vaccine • Glorification of home-maker / mother – although more women were working outside the home. • Consumerism & labor saving devices • Auto-mania - & interstate highway system. • “Planned Obsolescence” – goods designed to become out of date. • More credit

  44. More life in the 1950s • Importance of TV • shown in the Kennedy/Nixon Debates (1960 Election). • TV showed idealized white America. • Made people sympathize with the civil rights movement. • Air conditioning! Stimulated economic development in hotter climates

  45. More Life in the 1950s • 1956 - Development of the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) – regulates and licenses television, telephone, radio, etc.

  46. More life in the 1950s • “Beat Movement” – Beatniks – artistic / literary movement – nonconformity – didn’t like “regular” stuff - sought “higher consciousness” (beginning of drug movement). • Rock and Roll became popular – supposed to appeal to black and white alike. • Elvis Presley

  47. More life in the 1950s • “White Flight” – white Americans left cities for suburbs while rural poor migrated to cities. • Suburbs – shows rising middle class • Levittown – mass produced, planned communities for cheap – first built in Pennsylvania – equipped with modern appliances.

  48. Kennedy

  49. 1960 Election • Kennedy • Young • Catholic • Pro-Civil Rights and looked good on TV. • Coached by tv producers • Nixon • Foreign policy expert • Tough on communism

  50. 1960 Election • Closest election since 1884 – Kennedy Wins • “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.”