Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

mirra
soil erosion water moves soil n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil!

play fullscreen
1 / 25
Download Presentation
Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil!
193 Views
Download Presentation

Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil!

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Soil Erosion: Water Moves Soil!

  2. Horizon “O”: Organic Layer All soils do not have this Found beneath vegetation Contributes OM to all other layers Horizon “A”: Topsoil Other than location, no “official” or regulated definition Critical to plant growth Critical to landscape success Should be removed prior to construction and stock piled on site Horizon “B”: Subsoil (a transition zone) Much of the exposed soil in areas where construction has occurred May contain accumulated soluble salts beneath cultivated areas Horizon “C”: Parent Material Little or no soil development. Usually contains various sized rocks Horizon “D”: Bedrock You Get What You Pay For Soil Horizons What is Topsoil? Poison Hemlock!

  3. Physical Properties Soil Horizons Soil Texture, Consistency, & Structure Soil Compaction (Bulk Density) Soil Moisture Chemical Properties pH Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Biological Properties Microorganisms bacteria fungi (e.g. mycorrhizas) protozoa nematodes Macroorganisms arthropods earthworms nematodes Decomposition / Nutrient Recycling Aeration Aggregation (e.g. “microbial glue”) Biological Chemical Physical Soil Properties: SOIL TEXTURE pH CEC SOIL MOISTURE SQUIRMEES SOIL STRUCTURE They Are Not Independent!

  4. Let’s Focus on Compaction

  5. Topsoil A: Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: Trouble on the Horizon Organic O: Squeeze Play! Note: Topsoil Remains, but it is compressed COMPACTION!

  6. Trouble on the Horizon Compaction

  7. Characteristics of Soil Compaction: • Impermeable (hard!) soil: • High resistance to water penetration and movement (low infiltration and drainage) • High resistance to root penetration • Low Water Holding Capacity • Low Oxygen Holding Capacity

  8. Root Needs • Water • Warmth • Oxygen [O]: the #1 element needed for root health • 25% of the soil volume • At 5%, root growth stops • At 2%, roots decline and die

  9. Mineral Particles: 45% Mineral Particles: 75% Air: 25% Air: 12% Water: 25% Organic Matter: 5% Water: 12% Organic Matter: 1% Soil Structure and Compaction Good Soil Structure Poor Soil Structure Soil Pores Soil Pores

  10. Your Soil May Not be Compacted Several Soil Problems Mimic the Characteristics of Soil Compaction

  11. Topsoil A: Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: Trouble on the Horizon Organic O: Gone in 60 Seconds Exposed Subsoil: Mimics Compacted Soil!

  12. Trouble on the Horizon Topsoil Removed Topsoil Stockpiled

  13. Trouble on the Horizon Only 2-3” of topsoil returned!

  14. Built on a Farm Field?

  15. Topsoil A: Compaction Zone Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: Subsurface Plow Compaction Zone: Organic O:

  16. Topsoil A: Compaction Zone Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: Subsurface Tilling Compaction Zone: Organic O:

  17. Subsurface Rototiller Compaction Zone Front Tines Weight Weight Rear Tines

  18. Built on a Farm Field? Plowing: Washing-Out Clay Particles

  19. “False” Clay-Layer Horizon Illuviation: Deposition of Particles in Lower Level Eluviation: Downward Movement of Soil Particles by Water Clay Particles

  20. Topsoil A: Clay Layer Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: Perched Water Table: “False” Clay-Layer Horizon: MORE WATER WATER Organic O:

  21. Topsoil A: Clay Layer Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: "Upside-Down Soils: Acts Like Compacted Soil! Organic O:

  22. “Upside-Down” Soils: Lower layers are brought to the surface

  23. Clay Layer Subsoil B: Parent Material C: Bedrock D: "Upside-Down Soils: Note: some topsoil may remain beneath the false clay layer

  24. Dealing With a False Clay Layer and/or a Subsurface Compaction Zone: Subsoiler

  25. Other Soil Perspectives A really big guy? …or just a small shovel?