Sustainability and Stewardship of Mineral Resources in Minnesota
Download
1 / 32

Sustainability and Stewardship of Mineral Resources in Minnesota - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 119 Views
  • Uploaded on

Sustainability and Stewardship of Mineral Resources in Minnesota. Jim Miller University of Minnesota Duluth. Terminology and Definitions.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sustainability and Stewardship of Mineral Resources in Minnesota' - miron


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Sustainability and Stewardship of Mineral Resources in Minnesota

Jim Miller

University of Minnesota Duluth


Terminology and Definitions Minnesota

Natural Resources – materials, and energy that occur naturally within the Earth’s spheres. Many are essential for our survival, while others are used for satisfying our wants.

  • Water Resources

  • unlimited

  • recycleable

  • reuseable

  • Biological Resources

  • renewable

  • recycleable

  • reuseable

Stuff

  • Mineral Resources

  • non-renewable

  • recycleable

  • reuseable

  • Wind and Solar

  • unlimited

“Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1984, United Nations Commission)

Stewardship - “administration, management, control, including responsible use of resources” (Oxford English Dictionary Online)


  • Talk Outline Minnesota

  • Iron Ore Mining

  • What is Iron Ore?

  • Why is it here?

  • What is the future? – reclamation/re-use

  • Copper-Nickel-Precious Metal Deposits

  • Why are they here?

  • Why does do they contain sulfur?

  • Why do we need these metals?

  • How will this be mined safely?

  • When will this be mined? -Stewardship

  • What happens when the mines close?



Iron Formations of the Minnesota

Lake Superior Region

Taconite Ore

Vermilion

Babbitt, MN

Natural Ore

Hematite Ore

Chisolm, MN

Ispheming, MI


BIOGENIC ORIGIN? Minnesota

STROMATOLITES

(Fossilized Algal Mats)

Evidence of Early Life

LTV Mine, MN

Shark Bay, Australia

Mary Ellen Mine, MN


Rocheleau Minnesota Natural Ore Pit

Hull Rust Taconite Mine

Dunka Pit


Laurentian Vision Partnership Minnesota

Reclamation and Re-use of the Mesabi Range


A Looming Stewardship Question for Minnesotans: Minnesota

Should we develop this immense copper-nickel-precious metal mineral resource?


_______________ Minnesota

THE MIDCONTINENT RIFT

_______________

An attempt at continental rifting 1.1 billion years ago



The role of sulfur in concentrating metals most of the world s metal comes from sulfide minerals
The Role of Sulfur in Concentrating Metals MinnesotaMost of the world’s metal comes from sulfide minerals

Chalcopyrite

CuFeS2

Bornite

Cu5FeS4

Chalcocite

Cu2S

Pentlandite

(Fe,Ni)9S8

Sphalerite

ZnS

Cinnabar

HgS

Molybdenite

MoS2

Cobaltite

CoAsS

Galena

PbS


United States Minnesota –

The #1 consumer of mineral resources,

but produces

little for itself

% Mined by US % Imported for

Metalvs. Total Mining US consumption

Copper 7.7% 40%

(Chile (30%), US, Indonesia, Peru)

Nickel 0% 54%

(Russia, Australia, Canada, Indonesia)

Cobalt 0% 78%

(Congo (30%), Zambia, Australia, Canada)

Palladium 6.6% 78%

(Russia (44%), South Africa (38%))

Statistics from US Geological Survey

Mineral Commodity Summaries, Jan. 2006


COPPER Minnesota

An Important Metal in a Green Economy

NW Mining Association, 2009

Cu in a Standard Car with Combustion Engine

43-55 lbs

Cu in a Prius

80 lbs


US consumption from recycled Cu 2010 Minnesota

35%

Data from USGS Mineral Commodity Summary


PGE – Platinum Group Elements Minnesota

Pt – Platinum, Pd – Palladium, Os – Osmium, Ru – Ruthenium, Rh – Rhodium, Ir - Iridium


Bushveld Complex Minnesota

South Africa

Supplying the 70% of the World’s Platinum

Merensky Reef, Amplats Mine, Rustenburg, SA

Merensky Reef, Eastern Bushveld Complex


Palladium: Minnesota

“The Environmental Metal”

Pd

Uses


Noril’sk, Russia Minnesota

Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits

Supplies 60% of the World’s Palladium

Sulfide Smelter in Monchegorsk, Russia

In 1998, responsible for 50% of SO2

in the northern hemisphere


The Stillwater Mine (Montana) Minnesota

Only Precious Metals Mine in the U.S. (owned by Noril’sk Nickel)


PolyMet Mine Plan Minnesota

Re-Use as One Form of Sustainability


Re-Use of LTV Taconite Facilities Minnesota

Rod and Ball Mills

Tailings Basin

Crusher

Mill


Secondary Minnesota

Crusher

Mill

Primary

Crusher


Separating Metal from Sulfur Minnesota

THEN

Roasting/Smelting

Sudbury, Ont.

Monchegorsk, Russia

NOW

Hydrometallurgy


The concern and the challenge acid mine drainage
The Concern and the Challenge - Acid Mine Drainage Minnesota

2FeS2(s) + 7O2(g) + 2H2O(l) →

2Fe2+(aq) + 4SO42-(aq) + 4H+(aq)



Reclamation of sulfide mines flambeau mine ladysmith wi
Reclamation of Sulfide Mines MinnesotaFlambeau Mine, Ladysmith, WI

Before (~1990)

After (2005)

During (1993-1997)


Copper and Nickel Resources of the Duluth Complex Minnesota

WORLD CLASS!

That will be mined....

SOMEDAY

Hulbert & Ekstrand, 2008


STEWARDSHIP: the individual’s responsibility to manage his life and property with proper regard to the rights of others

Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1987)

Responsible stewardship of mineral resources demands that we make sensible and fair choices of where, how, and when to acquire critical resources we need for today and for the future.


ad