Election of 1900. The Election of 1900 was once again a fight between McKinley and Bryan Bryan took the role as anti-imperialist, citing McKinley as an enslaver of men
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Election of 1900 The Election of 1900 was once again a fight between McKinley and Bryan Bryan took the role as anti-imperialist, citing McKinley as an enslaver of men McKinley had won a war, acquired rich lands overseas, protected the gold standard, and picked an irresistible running mate, Teddy Roosevelt
TR Becomes President • McKinley wins the Presidency easily, but only served another six months before a deranged anarchist shot and killed him. • Fun Fact: He was the first president to ride in an automobile – the ambulance that took him to the hospital after he was shot. • TR had to quickly leave his campsite in the Adirondacks to take the oath of office, making him, at 42, the youngest American president.
The Man, The Myth, The Legend Second Wife: Edith Children: Alice (first wife), Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin
A Canal in Panama • The Spanish-American War showed the weakness of a navy split between two oceans – a canal was desperately needed! • The location of the canal was the problem • Nicaragua was the first choice, but scrapped due to an erupting volcano • Panama was a second choice, but it was part of Colombia • TR and the French (who had failed to complete a canal in Panama already) incited a rebellion in Panama.
A Canal in Panama Building the canal proved to be more dangerous and costly than originally planned. Sanitation and disease were major issues It was also the largest modern engineering undertaking to date; resulted in one of the greatest technological innovations in modern history.
“Speak softly, and carry a big stick”
Roosevelt Corollary Nations like Venezuela and the Dominican Republic were always behind in their loan payments to European nations. TR was afraid Europe might use force to collect their money Roosevelt Corollary: said the US would intervene in Latin America and collect the debts for Europe
Problems with Asia The Russo-Japanese war broke out over conflicts over claims to Korea and Manchuria. Japan asked TR to negotiate the peace talks The Treaty of Portsmouth left both sides short of their desires, but Roosevelt’s mediation earned him a Nobel Peace Prize.
The Great White Fleet: America’s highly advanced naval fleet They went on a diplomatic “good-will” mission around the world; had the bonus effect of showing America’s military muscle. Sending Out the “Great White Fleet”
The Death of A Bull Moose Despite his rapidly declining health, Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. On January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep at his home of a heart attack Upon receiving word of his death, his son Archie telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead.”
Taft: A Square Peg in a Round Hole Announcing he would not seek a third term, TR hand-picked William Howard Taft for the Republican ticket against William Jennings Bryan (yup, again). Taft seemed like a good successor to TR’s policies, but his “Progressivism” was mild, at best.
Dollar Diplomacy • Dollar Diplomacy: American businesses invest in and give loans to foreign countries to gain power (mainly in Latin America and Asia) • Would strengthen American foreign positions while making money • Not always successful • Using the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America allowed for sole investment, but also sole responsibility for rebellions
Wilson, The Man • Born and raised in the South • First Southerner since Andrew Johnson (1865) • First Democrat in 20 years • Deeply religious • Intelligent and educated • Superb public speaker • Elitist • An idealist • Stubborn
Moral Diplomacy • Woodrow Wilson is elected due to the split of the Republican Party and “Bull Moose” (Progressive) Party in the election of 1912. • Moral Diplomacy: A desire to lead other nations by moral example • Wilson was opposed to imperialism on moral grounds, but also used morality to justify his involvement in the Mexican Revolution. • Sent US Marines to Haiti and the Dominican Republic to protect American interests there.
The Mexican Revolution Mexico assassinated their corrupt and ineffectual president and placed Gen. Victoriano Huerta in power. Huerta made some positive changes for the poor, but served as a military dictator, causing the US to refuse to officially recognize his regime. Wilson allowed arms to go to Huerta’s rivals, Venustiano Carranza and Francisco “Pancho” Villa. American sailors visiting Mexico were unjustly arrested and not granted an apology upon their release. Wilson used this as an excuse to seize the port of Veracruz and help place Carranza in power.
The Last Invasion of America Huerta was replaced with Carranza, making Villa believe he’d been slighted by the US. He staged a series of violent escapades in New Mexico, trying to incite a war. Wilson sent 6,000 troops to find and capture Villa, but were unsuccessful in capturing the guerillas. Was ultimately killed by a Mexican rival.