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Autonomic Web Processes. Presenter: Amit Sheth METEOR-S project, LSDIS Lab Computer Science, University of Georgia Presentation of the Vision Paper (Invited):

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autonomic web processes

Autonomic Web Processes

Presenter: Amit Sheth

METEOR-S project, LSDIS Lab

Computer Science, University of Georgia

Presentation of the Vision Paper (Invited):

Kunal Verma and Amit Sheth. Autonomic Web Processes. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Service-oriented Computing (ICSOC 2005), - Vision Paper (invited), LNCS 3826, Springer Verlag, 2005, pp. 1-11.

  • Growing need for creating more adaptive/dynamic process frameworks
  • IBM’s vision of autonomic computing lays foundation of adaptive/self managing systems
  • Our vision seeks to elevate Autonomic Web Processes from the infrastructure to the process level

autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Responsible for maintaining constant internal environment of human body by controlling involuntary functions like:
    • digestion, respiration, perspiration, and metabolism
  • Divided into two subsystems:
    • Sympathetic and parasympathetic

autonomic nervous system1
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic
    • providing responses and energy needed to cope with stressful situations such as fear or extremes of physical activity
      • Increases blood pressure, heart rate, and the blood supply to the skeletal muscles at the expense of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and skin
  • Parasympathetic
    • Brings normalcy in between stressful periods
      • which lowers the heart rate and blood pressure, diverts blood back to the skin and the gastrointestinal tract
an example
An Example

autonomic computing
Autonomic Computing
  • Autonomic Computing is an initiative started by IBM in 2001
  • Aims to make systems that simulate the autonomic nervous system by having the ability to be more self managing
  • Objective to let user specify high level policies and then the system should be able to manage itself
autonomic computing properties
Autonomic Computing - properties
  • Infrastructural Components with Self-CHOP properties
    • Self Configuring
    • Self Healing
    • Self Optimizing
    • Self Protecting
  • Examples
    • Self Adaptive Middleware
    • Self Healing Databases
    • Autonomic Server Monitoring
autonomic web processes awps
Autonomic Web Processes (AWPs)
  • Natural Evolution of Autonomic Computing from infrastructure to Web process level
    • Web processes are Web services based workflows
  • Require Web process frameworks that have the following properties
    • Support Self-CHOP properties
    • Policy based interaction with other components
    • Based on open standards (WS technologies)
  • Based on the synergy between a number of broad fields
    • Autonomic Computing, Web Services, Service Oriented Architectures, Operations Research, Control Theory, Semantic Web, Dynamic and Adaptive Web Processes/Workflows
use case
Use Case
  • Supply Chain of computer manufacturer
  • Self Configuring: Can the process be configured based on constraints and policies
  • Self Healing: Can the process recover from physical and logical failures
  • Self Optimizing: Can the process reconfigure itself in case of changes in environment.
self configuring
Self Configuring
  • Depending on the scope, configuration may include
    • Creation of process (manual/semi-automatic/planning)
    • Discovery of partners (internal/external registry)
    • Negotiation (manual/automated)
    • Constraint Analysis (quantitative/logical/hybrid)
  • Require representation of:
    • Functional semantics for discovery
    • Non-functional semantics for constraint analysis – constraints, policies, SLAs
self configuring1
Self Configuring

Configured Process

Constraint based Configuration

self healing
Self Healing
  • Process must be able to recover from
    • Failures of physical components like services, processes, network
    • Logical failures like violation of SLA constraints/Agreements
      • Delay in delivery, partial fulfillment of order
  • Require representation of execution semantics
    • Physical and Logical Exceptions and recovery paths
self healing1
Self Healing

Execution Graph- Generated from Operations, Events and Flags

5 Flags, thus 25 = 32 possible states (only 8 reachable states)

S1- Ordered = True (All other flags false)

S4 - Ordered = True and Received = false

S5-Ordered = True and Delayed = false

---Transition due to action

- - Exogenous events

(example probabilities of occurrence of the events conditioned on the states)

  • One proposed approach: Use Markov Decision Processes to choose optimal actions

K. Verma, P. Doshi, K. Gomadam, J. Miller, A. Sheth, Optimal Adaptation in Autonomic Web Processes with Inter-Service Dependencies,   LSDIS Lab, Technical Report, November 2005

self optimizing
Self Optimizing
  • Process must be able to reconfigure itself with changes in environment
    • Fluctuations in currency exchange rates of overseas suppliers
    • New discounts or cheaper suppliers available
  • Must choose between long term and short term benefits
  • This requires both functional and non-functional semantics
self optimizing1
Self Optimizing

Change in Currency Rate beyond threshold

Sympathethic Policy

Reconfigure process for immediate gain

May including canceling order from previous Supplier

Parasympathethic Policy

Consider long term supplier relationship

  • Functional and Data Semantics
    • Service (WSDL-S)[1]
  • Non-Functional Semantics
    • Policies (Semantically Annotated Policy)[2]
      • Business Level Policies, Process Level Policies, Instance Level Policies Individual Component Level Policy
    • Agreements (SWAPS) [3]
  • Execution Semantics
    • State based representation of exceptions/failures
    • Process (BPEL + Semantic Templates) [4]
  • Ontologies
    • Domain Specific Ontologies,
    • Domain Independent/Upper Ontologies

[1] Web Service Semantics – WSDL-S, W3C Member Submission.,

[2] K. Verma, R. Akkiraju, R. Goodwin, Semantic matching of Web service policies, SDWP, 2005

[3] N. Oldham, K. Verma, A. Sheth, Semantic WS-Agreement Partner Selection

[4] K. Sivashanmugam, J. Miller, A. Sheth, and K. Verma, Framework for Semantic Web Process Composition, IJEC, 2004

awps vs autonomic computing

Self Configuring: Processes configured with respect to business policies.

  • Self Healing: Quick responses to failures, leading to large savings in cost.
  • Self Optimizing: Environment changes lead to reconfiguration to a lower cost process.

Autonomic Web Processes

Business Processes

  • Self Configuring: Lower IT cost on maintenance and deployment.
  • Self Healing: Lower human involvement in problem detection, analysis and solving.
  • Self Optimizing: Better SLAs to customers of the IT infrastructure.

Autonomic Computing

Autonomic IT Infrastructure




AWPs vs. Autonomic Computing
  • The Vision:
    • AWPs seek to create next generation of Web process technology
  • Current Work:
    • Initial work at UGA on using MDPs for adaptation
    • IBM work on WSDM for autonomic Web services
    • Paolo Traverso et al. - Autonomic Composition of Business Processes
  • The Future:
    • We invite researchers from SOA, Web services, AI, multi-agents, operations research, control theory to contribute to this vision
    • Dagstuhl-Seminar: Autonomic Web Services and Processes (possibly in August 2006) Contact: Paolo Traverso, Amit Sheth