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Autonomic Nervous System. Homeostasis. Integration. Feed-back. Effectors. Receptors. Somatic vs Autonomic NS. Somatic vs Autonomic Nervous systems. Somatic NS Receptors Integration Effectors 5 senses Cortex (& assoc.) Skeletal muscles Autonomic NS

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somatic vs autonomic nervous systems
Somatic vs Autonomic Nervous systems

Somatic NS

Receptors Integration Effectors

5 sensesCortex (& assoc.)Skeletal muscles

Autonomic NS

Receptors Integration Effectors


Osmo-medulla oblongatasmooth



autonomic nervous system5
Autonomic Nervous system
  • Two aspects

-1 to promote survival - the other to promote

in crisis state survival in stable state

Sympathetic Parasympathetic

Fight or flight Rest and digest

functions sympathetic parasympathetic
Promote survival in crisis state:

- Increase heart rate

- Increase breathing rate

- Increase blood pressure

- Vasoconstriction of peripheral/non-essential blood vessels and

- Vasodilation in heart, brain, muscles

- Bronchodilation

- Iris dilation

- Increase blood glucose

Decrease digestion

Decrease digestive juice secretion

Decrease digestive tube motility

Promote sphincter closing

Opposite of Sympathetic

Promotes digestion

Promotes rest

Functions:Sympathetic Parasympathetic
sympathetic ns
Sympathetic NS
  • 2 motor neurons
  • Motor neuron 1 in lateral horn of spinal cord between T1 to L3
  • Motor neuron 2 in the paravertebral ganglia (forming the sympathetic trunk)
  • Acetylcholine (nicotinic receptor) in ganglionic synapse, norepinephrine at the organ synapse
  • Nerve pathways mixed with somatic sensory and motor pathways
motor sympathetic ns
Motor Sympathetic NS
  • Two exceptions:

- Adrenal gland: Motor neuron 2 has evolved into a “secretory” neuron which releases mostly epinephrine

- The collateral ganglia: ganglia located between spinal cord and effectors -- ex: celiac ganglia innervating the digestive system

Sympathetic trunk: all the linked paravertebral ganglia will react as a unit to a stimulation of the sympathetic NS  heart rate increases, vasodilation of bronchi ….

Collateral ganglia: they will not automatically react as a unit with the motor neurons from the sympathetic trunk

the adrenal medulla
The gland is formed by the second motor neuron

Secretes epinephrine

Sympathetic effect sustained

The adrenal medulla
parasympathetic ns
2 motor neurons

Motor neuron 1 in medulla oblongata or sacral spine

Motor neuron 2 in a ganglion near the organ

Acetylcholine (nicotinic receptor) in ganglionic synapse

Acetylcholine (muscarinic receptor) in effector synapse

Nerve pathways mixed with sensory and motor pathways, except for Vagus nerve (75% ANS)

Parasympathetic NS
receptors in the ans
Receptors in the ANS
  • Cholinergic receptors:

Inhibitory or excitatory

- Nicotinic: fast

- Muscarinic: slow

Adrenergic receptors:

slow, excitatory or inhibitory

- α 1 and 2

- β 1 and 2 (and 3)

adrenergic receptors
α 1 and 2:

affinity NE > E

generally excitatory

β 1 and 3

affinity NE = E


β 2

affinity E > NE


Adrenergic receptors

Figure 11.8a

effects of various drugs on the ans
Drugs acting on the cholinergic receptors:

- agonist: simulate parasympathetic effect

- antagonist: blocks parasympathetic effect (mimics sympathetic agonist)

Drugs acting on the sympathetic NS

- agonist: simulate sympathetic effect

- antagonist: blocks sympathetic effect (mimics parasympathetic agonist)

Effects of various drugs on the ANS
Epinephrine and ephedrine are given in aerosol in people suffering from an asthma attack.

- Knowing that these drugs are adrenergic agonists, which effect do you expect on the bronchi?

- Which side effects are you likely to see?

Refer to Table 11-2 from the book to answer these question

Propanolol is a beta-blocker.

- What is this drug effect on the heart?

- Which side effects are you likely to see?

Refer to Table 11-2 from the book to answer these question

Atropine is a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist.

- What is this drug effect on the pupils?

- What is this drug effect on the heart?

- Which side effects are you likely to see?

- Will skeletal muscles be affected by this drug?

Refer to Table 11-2 from the book to answer these question

  • Chp. 11, p.303-315
  • Will not be on the test:

- Autonomic neuroeffector junctions, p 310