4 Categorical Propositions 4.1 THE COMPONENTS OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS
Standard Form Categorical Propositions All S are P No S are P Some S are P Some S are not P Unless a statement is in one of these four forms, it is not in standard form.
Standard Form Categorical Proposition All members of the American Medical Association are persons holding degrees from recognized academic institutions. Quantifier = All Subject term = members of the American Medical Association Copula = are Predicate term = persons holding degrees from recognized academic institutions This statement is an instantiation of the standard form: All S are P You might translate it: All M are D for All AMA Members are Degree holders
Standard Form Categorical Proposition Some universities that emphasize research are not institutions that neglect undergraduate education. Quantifier = Some Subject term = universities that emphasize research Copula = are not Predicate term = institutions that neglect undergraduate education This statement is an instantiation of the standard form: Some S are not P You might translate it: Some R are not N for Some Research universities are not Neglecters of undergrads.
Standard Form Categorical Proposition The Subject term and Predicate term each name a class (or group) of things. The Quantifiers “All,” “No,” and “Some” tell us how much of the subject class is included in or excluded from the predicate class. The Copulas “are” and “are not” tell us whether members of the subject class are included or excluded from the predicate class.
Standard Form Categorical Proposition Identify the Subject Term, Predicate Term, Copula, and Quantifier: 1) No persons who live near airports are persons who appreciate the noise of jets. 2) All oil-based paints are products that contribute significantly to photochemical smog. 3) Some artificial hearts are mechanisms that are prone to failure. 4) Some universities that emphasize research are not institutions that neglect undergraduate education.
About Terms… Notice on the previous slide, all the words between the quantifier and copula count as the subject term … all the words after the copula to the end of the sentence count as the predicate term. This will be true of every categorical sentence we consider in the text, quizzes, and tests. This isn’t true, always, in ordinary discourse.
Quantities There are 3 different quantifiers (words that show quantity), but just two quantities. Huh? All No Some Particular Universal
Qualities There are just two qualities, affirmative & negative, but 4 words that indicate them: ‘All’ ‘Are’ ‘No’ ‘Are not’ indicate Affirmative indicate Negative