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THE MONGOLS AND THE END OF THE CALIPHATE Weakening of Seljuks from late 11 th century PowerPoint Presentation
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THE MONGOLS AND THE END OF THE CALIPHATE Weakening of Seljuks from late 11 th century A. Turkic dynastic principle that authority resides in ruling family→no strong dynasty B. Influence of ATABEGs (lit., “father of the beg/bey”) =

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slide1

THE MONGOLS AND THE END OF THE CALIPHATE

  • Weakening of Seljuks from late 11th century
  • A. Turkic dynastic principle that authority resides in ruling
  • family→no strong dynasty
  • B. Influence of ATABEGs (lit., “father of the beg/bey”) =
  • tutor to crown prince when prince goes to govern
  • province If prince dies before adulthood, atabeg can marry
  • his mother and govern province→Seljuk domain breaks up
  • into autonomous regional dynasties.
  • C. SALAH AL-DIN (SALADIN), client of Seljuk atabeg who
  • ruled N. Iraq and Syria

Baghdad

Cairo

slide2

D. Fragmented Seljuk empire can’t defend against continuing

Turkic migrations from C. Asia.

II. Last hurrah of Abbasid caliphs – the caliph al-Nasir

(r. 1180-1225)

A. Used palace troops to displace Seljuks in C. Iraq

B. Sought religious legitimacy by patronizing sufi orders

13th-century Abbasid madrasa, Baghdad

slide3

III. MONGOLS were a quasi-Turkic nomadic population from

Mongolia, begin to expand late 12th c. because of

OVERPOPULATION.

slide4

TEMÜJIN (1162-1227) creates Mongol confederation under rule

  • of his clan.
  • B. Receives title CHINGGIS (GENGHIS) KHAN = “Supreme Ruler”
  • C. His armies sweep across C. Asia and into N. China.
slide5

THE FAMILY OF GENGHIS KHAN

GENGHIS (1162-1227)

Jochi Ögödei Chagatai Tuluy

↓ Great Khan C. ASIA

GOLDEN

HORDE Möngke KhubilaiHulagu

(RUSSIA) Great Khan CHINAIRAN/IRAQ

↓ ↓

Yuan dynastyIlkhanids

1270-1368 c. 1260-1349

slide6

Jochi

(son)

Chagatai

(son)

Khubilai

(grandson)

Hulagu

(grandson)

slide7

D. Nature of Mongol invasions: armies (hordes) are accompanied by

entire population.

E. Yurts = Mongol mobile homes

F. Mongol “blitzkriegs” and devastation

slide8

IV. Hulagu’s invasion of Iran and Iraq

A. Raids and advances→all-out assaults on population centers

B. Anti-Nizari (Assassin) rationale

(1) Chief qadi of Baghdad complains to Mongol Great Khan.

(2) Mongols destroy Alamut, 1256.

Hasani, I’m

frightened!

slide9

C. Great Seljuks of Iran and Iraq are destroyed.

D. Seljuk offshoot in Anatolia (cap.: Konya) capitulates and survives

as Mongol vassal till 1307.

Konya

Jalal al-Din Rumi’s tomb, Konya

slide10

The sack of Baghdad, 1258

  • (1) Conspiracy theory: Caliph betrayed by Shicites
  • (2) Caliph’s army of 700 vs. Hulagu’s army of 200,000
  • (3) Abbasid royal family murdered
slide11

V. Mongol epilogue

A. Hulagu’s descendants found Ilkhanid dynasty (capital:

Tabriz, NW Iran)

B. Ilkhanid ruler converts to Sunni Islam, late 13th c.

C. Ilkhanids adopt Persian court culture.

tomb of Ilkhanid ruler Oljeytu (late 13th c.), Sulaymaniye, Iran

slide12

pages from the Shahname prepared at the Ilkhanid court in Tabriz, c. 1308

slide13

VI. Caliphal epilogue

A. Abbasid prince escapes Mongol sack of Baghdad, flees to

CAIRO.

B. Recognized and treated as “shadow-caliph” by MAMLUK

SULTANS, former mamluks of Saladin’s dynasty who take

over govt. in 1250 and stop Mongols in Syria in 1260.

slide14

C. When Ottomans conquer Mamluk sultanate in 1517, they take

Abbasid family members to Istanbul, eventually let them return

to Cairo.

D. Ottoman sultan recognized as Sunni caliph by 18th c.

E. Ottoman caliphate abolished by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (founder

of modern Turkey), 1924.

Atatürk