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THE MONGOLS AND THE END OF THE KHILAAFAH • Weakening of Seljuks from late 11th century • A. Turkic dynastic principle that authority resides in ruling • family →no strong dynasty • B. Influence of ATABEGs (lit., “father of the beg/bey”) = • tutor to crown prince when prince goes to govern • province. If prince dies before adulthood, atabeg can marry • his mother and govern province →Seljuk domain breaks up • into autonomous regional dynasties. • C. SALAH AL-DIN (SALADIN), client of Seljuk atabeg who • ruled N. Iraq and Syria Baghdad Cairo
D. Fragmented Seljuk empire can’t defend against continuing Turkic migrations from C. Asia. II. Last hurrah of Abbasid caliphs – the caliph al-Nasir (r. 1180-1225) A. Used palace troops to displace Seljuks in C. Iraq B. Sought religious legitimacy by patronizing sufi orders 13th-century Abbasid madrasa, Baghdad
III. MONGOLS were a quasi-Turkic nomadic population from Mongolia, begin to expand late 12th c. because of OVERPOPULATION.
TEMÜJIN (1162-1227) creates Mongol confederation under rule • of his clan. • B. Receives title CHINGGIS (GENGHIS) KHAN = “Supreme Ruler” • C. His armies sweep across C. Asia and into N. China.
THE FAMILY OF GENGHIS KHAN GENGHIS (1162-1227) Jochi Ögödei Chagatai Tuluy ↓ Great Khan C. ASIA GOLDEN HORDE Möngke KhubilaiHulagu (RUSSIA) Great Khan CHINAIRAN/IRAQ ↓ ↓ Yuan dynastyIlkhanids 1270-1368 c. 1260-1349
Jochi (son) Chagatai (son) Khubilai (grandson) Hulagu (grandson)
D. Nature of Mongol invasions: armies (hordes) are accompanied by entire population. E. Yurts = Mongol mobile homes F. Mongol “blitzkriegs” and devastation
IV. Hulagu’s invasion of Iran and Iraq A. Raids and advances →all-out assaults on population centers B. Anti-Nizari (Assassin) rationale (1) Chief qadi of Baghdad complains to Mongol Great Khan. (2) Mongols destroy Alamut, 1256. Hasani, I’m frightened!
C. Great Seljuks of Iran and Iraq are destroyed. D. Seljuk offshoot in Anatolia (cap.: Konya) capitulates and survives as Mongol vassal till 1307. Konya Jalal al-Din Rumi’s tomb, Konya
The sack of Baghdad, 1258 • (1) Conspiracy theory: Caliph betrayed • (2) Caliph’s army of 10,000 vs. Hulagu’s army of 200,000 • (3) Abbasid royal family murdered
V. Mongol epilogue A. Hulagu’s descendants found Ilkhanid dynasty (capital: Tabriz, NW Iran) B. Ilkhanid ruler converts to Islam, late 13th c. C. Ilkhanids adopt Persian court culture. tomb of Ilkhanid ruler Oljeytu (late 13th c.), Sulaymaniye, Iran
pages from the Shahname prepared at the Ilkhanid court in Tabriz, c. 1308
VI. Caliphal epilogue A. Abbasid prince escapes Mongol sack of Baghdad, flees to CAIRO. B. Recognized and treated as “shadow-caliph” by MAMLUK SULTANS, former mamluks of Saladin’s dynasty who take over govt. in 1250 and stop Mongols in Syria in 1260.
C. When Ottomans conquer Mamluk sultanate in 1517, they take Abbasi family members to Istanbul, eventually let them return to Cairo. D. Ottoman sultan recognized as Sunni Khalifa by 18th c. E. Ottoman Khilaafah abolished by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (founder of modern Turkey), 1924. Atatürk