The Congress Congress = bicameral (2 house) legislature made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate Created by the Great ________________ of 1787 Powers listed in Article ____ Makes _____ for the U.S. and represents the choices of the citizens No limit on the amount of _______you can serve
The Congress The majority of the members of Congress are ___________ or businessmen, with most being white, older, male, and relatively wealthy…just like __________ Members receive _________benefits, salaries, and “perks” Perks include free _________, vacations, office space, a staff, discounts, _______ healthcare and ______________Privilege – free mailings
The Congress Members of Congress can be removed from office, called ____________, with a 2/3’s vote by either house of Congress. Members may also receive a __________ reprimand or disapproval, called a __________, for dishonesty or misbehavior.
The Congress The ________is considered the upper ___________. It has ______ members with each state equally represented with 2 senators, who represent the entire ___________. Senators earn a salary of $_____________ per year, plus other benefits.
The Congress • To become a U.S. Senator, a person must meet 3 requirements: • Must be at least _____ years old • Must have been a United States citizen for at least _________ years • Must live in the ________ they represent
The Congress • Senators are generally seen as being more powerful and influential. • Senators serve ___________meaning they are re-elected every 6 years. • ______of the Senate is re-elected every 2 years, on a rotating basis, so that it takes 6 years for the entire senate to be re-elected or changed. • (N.C.’s Senators are ___________a Democrat who was elected in 2008; and _______________, a Republican, who has served since 2004)
The Congress • The House of Representatives is considered the ________ house. • It has _______members, who represent __________in a state, based upon the ____________of their state. • All states have at least one, such as Vermont, Montana, and Wyoming; California has the most with 52. • House members earn a salary of $_______________per year, plus other benefits.
The Congress • To be a House of Representatives member, 3 requirements must be met • Must be at least ____ years old • Must have been a United States citizen for at least _________ years • Must live in the _________, they represent
The Congress • Representatives serve 2-year terms with the entire House facing __________ every 2 years. • Each House member represents the people of a specific district within the state, each district containing about _______________ citizens
CONGRESS Congressmen serve 5 specific roles in doing their work: Policy _________- the toughest role ____________ member- arguing for and against bills, protecting their party’s views. _____________- Congressmen serve as trustees for the people _____________servant- they deal directly with people in their district ________- Congressional members must appear to be effective representatives to their voters
CONGRESS • DUTIES: • Congress considers bills, a.k.a. ______________, which must pass the House of Representatives and the Senate to become law. • The House of Representatives, because it has so many members with 435, has much __________ rules than the Senate when conducting its business. These rules are not set by the Constitution, but by the House. • The party, whether Democrat or Republican, with the most members in the House or the Senate is called the ___________________Party. • The party with fewer members is called the __________________Party.
The Senate and House have party leaders who are elected by its members. • Senate Majority Leader, from the majority party • Senate Minority Leader, from the minority party • House Majority Leader, from majority party • House Minority Leader, from the minority party • **All are assisted by a ______________** • The party whip helps the leader keep track of his party members voting, and helps persuade party members to support party when voting on issues.
The official head and leader of the House of Representatives is called the _____________of the House. • This is the most __________ position in all of Congress, including the Senate. • The Speaker of the House is _________by the members of the House of Representatives, and is always from the majority party. • The Speaker: • 1. Decides the _________ for all House activities • 2. Decides who gets to __________ and for how long • 3. Decides if a ________ gets to be voted upon, and when
The Constitution makes the _____________the official leader and President of the Senate. The Vice-President rarely appears; only votes in case of a tie. • The official leader of the Senate, when the Vice-President is absent, is called the “______________________”, and is traditionally the longest serving Senator from the majority party. • The person who has the real power and actually runs the Senate is the ___________________, who is elected from the members of the majority party. • The Majority Leader: • Decides which ________ will be debated • Decides how the Senate will do its _________business
Committee System Committees review, discuss, revise, and either kill the bill, or pass it. Congress has 3 types of committees: _______________ Committee- a permanent committee that deals with a certain topic, like the Budget Committee, that deals with the budget. Some Standing Committees are broken down into smaller committees, called ________- Committees, which deal with even more specialized issues within a particular area.
Committee System 2. _________ Committees- are temporary committees, which last only a few months, created by Congress to deal with special specific issues. 3. _______ Committees- are committees made up of members from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, for a limited period of time, to address specific issues, like the Joint Committee on Taxation. A special type of Joint Committee is a _____________ Committee, created by the House and the Senate to work out details and problems when the two groups pass different versions of the same proposed bill.
The ___________ leaders of each party choose the members of the committees. • The leader of each committee is called the ___________, and is from the majority party. • The __________ party controls, or has the majority of members on all committees, because it has more votes when choosing those members.
Powers of Congress _________ Powers- powers listed specifically in Article I of the Constitution. (Some examples include, power to collect taxes, power to maintain armed services, power to declare war)
Powers of Congress (Examples: • expressed power-Congress can maintain an Army and Navy • implied power-Congress can also maintain Marines & Air Force) _________ ______Powers- powers assumed by Congress to be necessary to carry out their jobs, and given to them by the “necessary and proper clause” in Article I of the Constitution. The “necessary and proper clause” is sometimes called the “__________clause” because it allows Congress to stretch its original powers.
Powers of Congress 3. ________________ Powers- powers that enable the government to work allow Congress to serve as a part of the “checks and balances system”. For example: 1. the power to investigate people and situations that affect U.S. 2. the power to review the Executive Branch, and the President. 3. the power to ___________, or and possibly remove, government officials.
_____________is the investigation and trial of a government official, including the President and federal judges, for breaking the law. • Two Step Process: • 1. _________ investigates and brings up the charges • 2. The _________ acts as the jury and decides guilt in the trial A _____________by the Senate (67 votes) convicts/removes person from office.
Special Powers for Each House House of Representatives 1. Power to ____________ President in case of tie or no majority in Electoral College. 2. **All bills that have to do with ___________ and appropriations, or spending of money, must be introduced and begin in the House of Representatives. Senate • Senate serves as the ____________in any impeachment trial • Senate must ratify, or approve, any ________with a foreign country • Senate must approve, or reject _______________made by the President to certain high-level government jobs, such as Supreme Court Justices, Executive Department Secretaries, FBI Director, etc.
5 ACTIONS CONGRESS CANNOT TAKE • Congress cannot favor one state over another state. • Congress cannot tax interstate commerce (from one state to another) • Congress cannot tax any exports • Congress cannot make laws in areas reserved for the states. These reserved powers are given to the states, and include laws about marriage, divorce, murder, and others. • Congress cannot pass laws that interfere withindividual legal rights.
Congress is also kept in check, or limited by the President, who has the power to veto, or block, any bill passed by Congress. This is also part of the “checks and balances system.” • Congress can get around the veto, or override the President’s veto, if 2/3’s of both houses of Congress votes to do so. This rarely happens.