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Chapter 13. Institutional Management. “Formal Organization”. a structure established for influencing behavior to achieve particular ends 1.) The Organizational Structure 2.) The Impact of the Structure. why governing prisons is different from other public institutions.

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chapter 13
Chapter 13

Institutional Management

formal organization
“Formal Organization”
  • a structure established for influencing behaviorto achieve particular ends
  • 1.) The Organizational Structure
  • 2.) The Impact of the Structure
why governing prisons is different from other public institutions
why governing prisons is different from other public institutions
  • the defects of total power
    • power is limited; depends on inmate cooperation
    • prison unlike other authoritarian organizations
      • inmates don’t recognize legitimacy of their keepers
      • no sense of duty propels them to compliance
  • limited system of rewards & punishments
    • job assignment, housing, parole report, good time
    • available punishments not severe, confer status
  • co-opting of correctional officers
    • officers forced into inmate trade-offs
      • must maintain ‘surface order’
      • forced to ‘buy’ compliance or tolerate rule breaking
  • strength of inmate leadership
correctional officers the linchpin of management
Correctional Officers: The Linchpin of Management
  • Who Becomes a Corrections Officer
  • Role Characteristics
  • Job assignments
  • Problems with the Officers Role
  • Job Stress and burnout
  • Boundary Violations
  • Use of Force
  • Collective Bargaining
strategies of influence
Strategies of influence

“compliance”

obedience to an order or request

types of power for gaining compliance

remunerative power

obtaining compliance in exchange for material resources

normative power

obtaining compliance by manipulating symbolic rewards

coercive power

obtaining compliance by the application or threat of physical force

goals of the confinement model of prisons
Goals of the “Confinement Model” of prisons
  • keep them in
    • facility must be secure
  • keep them safe
    • inmates & staff must be protected from each other, as well as environmental hazards
  • keep them in line
    • rules must exist and be enforced
  • keep them healthy
    • inmates must have medical care
  • keep them busy
    • constructive activity through work, recreation, education, treatment programs
formal prison organization
Formal Prison Organization

warden

deputy warden

Management

deputy warden

Custody

deputy warden

Programs

deputy warden

Industries

budgets/accts

inst. security

education

industry

purchasing

guard forces

vocational training

farm

building & grounds

inmate discipline

classification

clothing & laundry

investigations

counseling

visiting

medical serv.

food service

recreation

canteen

religion

unity of command
“Unity of Command”
  • management principle that a subordinate should report to only one supervisor

deputy warden

Management

deputy warden

Custody

deputy warden

Programs

deputy warden

Industries

inst. security

investigations

guard forces

visiting

inmate discipline

chain of command
“Chain of Command”
  • management principle that orders organization as a series of hierarchical positions of authority, so that each person in hierarchy receives orders from one immediately above and issues orders to one immediately below himself or herself

warden

deputy warden

Management

deputy warden

Custody

deputy warden

Programs

deputy warden

Industries

captain

lieutenant

sergeant

span of control
“span of control”
  • management principle that a supervisorcan effectively oversee only a limitednumber of subordinates

deputy warden

Management

deputy warden

Custody

deputy warden

Programs

deputy warden

Industries

education

budgets/accts

recreation

classification

inst. security

investigations

farm

guard forces

visiting

food service

inmate discipline

industry

purchasing

line personnel
“Line Personnel”
  • Employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution’s goals; workers in direct contact with clients
staff personnel
“Staff Personnel”
  • Employees who provide services in support of line personnel (e.g., clerks, purchasing officers, accountants, training officers, maintenance, laundry, food service)
governance
“Governance”
  • the sound and firm management of inmates and staff
    • “governance” is what distinguishes a well-run prison from a substandard prison.
factors affection quality of life in prison
factors affection quality of life in prison

quality of life

Order

absence of individual or group misconduct that threatens safety of others

service

programs designed to improve the life prospects of inmates (e.g., education, training, work)

amenity

anything that enhances comfort of the inmates (e.g., good food, clean cells, recreation)

“A good prison “provides as much order, amenity, and service as possible, given the human & financial resources.” --John DiIulio

prison discipline
Prison Discipline
  • inmates are givenset of rules on arrival
  • rule violations can bemajor or minor
  • violations of rules are handled by staff
    • minor violations result in warning, counseling
    • major violations may result in sanctions
      • criminal prosecution
      • loss of “good time”
      • time in punitive segregation (the “hole”)
      • loss of privileges (e.g., visits, mail, commissary, recreation
  • 1/2 inmatescharged with ≥ 1 violation
    • 90% of those charged are found ‘guilty’
prison disciplinary process
prison disciplinary process
  • officer writes inmate a ‘ticket’ for violation
    • minor ticket
      • summary judgment by hearing officer
      • counseling; reprimand
    • major ticket: goes to a semi-formal hearing
      • disciplinary committee
        • 3 - 5 correctional staff (custody, treatment, classification)
        • inmate rights: notice of complaint, help preparing case, fair hearing, confront witnesses, written statement of decision
      • hearing officer
        • sometimes case investigated by hearing officer-- conducts hearing, makes decision (in absence of a committee)
    • decision appealed ‘up’ chain of command
      • to captain, warden, commissioner of corrections
prison directors a formula for effective leadership
prison directorsa formula for effective leadership:
  • be in officelong enough to learn job, make plans, & implement them.
  • project an appealingimage to a wide range of people, both inside & outside of the organization.
  • bededicated & loyal to the department; see oneself as engaged in a noble & challenging profession.
  • be‘hands-on’ & proactive; prevent problems; be politically astute.
the correctional officer
the correctional officer

officers’

duties

counsel

maintain and deliver supplies

supervise

write and administer reports

protect

process & control inmates

train

it s a tough job but
it’s a tough job, but ...

long hours

disadvantages of correctional officer job

seen as

‘dead end’ job

low pay

high turnover

potentially dangerous

low entry requirements

conflicting roles: custody - treatment

low public image

it does have its benefits
… it does have its benefits

advantages of the job

job security

‘growth’ industry

limited alternatives (where prisons are located)

low entry requirements

easy to supplement with overtime or part-time

paramilitary organization duties of custody staff
paramilitary organization & duties of custody staff

captain

administrative responsibilities; link between custody and top management

lieutenant

supervises sergeants within areas of the prison; principle disciplinarians

supervises complement of officers within one area of the prison (e.g., housing unit, hospital, kitchen, yard, industries, reception & release, etc.

sergeant

correctional officer

line staff responsible for daily operation of a specific area of prison

correctional officer job assignments
correctional officer job assignments
  • block officer
      • oversee unit maintenance, security, safety, inmate problems & needs, enforce rules
  • work detail supervisor
      • supervise inmate workers who provide food services & maintenance, outside work details
  • industrial shop & school officer
      • maintenance & security of work & school areas
  • yard officer (order & security on yard)
  • administrative building assignment
      • gate security, supervise visiting, public information
  • wall or tower post (observe, minimal inmate contact)
  • relief officer (fills in for absent staff)
use of force circumstances justifying reasonable force
use of force: circumstances justifying reasonable force
  • self-defense
    • when threatened with physical attack
  • defense of third persons
    • to protect a threatened inmate or officer
  • upholding prison rules
    • to maintain safety and security
  • prevention of a crime
  • prevention of escapes
    • law allows deadly force to prevent an escape, but policies vary across states
collective bargaining
collective bargaining
  • 1st unions for correctional employees
    • 1956: Washington, DC & New York City
    • 1970s: many states passed enabling legislation
    • 1981: unions in 29 of 52 jurisdictions
  • who is represented (often separate unions)
    • custodial, program, support staff
  • issues and concerns
    • wages, hiring, conditions of employment
    • support expansion of prison facilities
    • oppose private prisons
    • support victims’ rights legislation
    • tougher sentencing laws