Pearl Harbor’s Impact on the Japanese • Anti-Japanese sentiments have existed in the United States for several decades prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. • During that time, more than 119,000 people of Japanese ancestry two-thirds of them American citizens, were living in California, Washington, and Oregon.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 9066 in February of 1942. • Executive Order No. 9066 empowered the U.S. Army to designate areas from which "any or all persons may be excluded."
Reasons for Japanese Internment • Exist anti-Japanese prejudice on the West Coast • The attack of Pearl Harbor shocked the American public, resulting in widespread hysteria and paranoia. • False belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy
Japanese Internment • Those of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast were to be relocated. • Internment refers to the forced imprisonment and relocation of a group of people.
Internment • Fear of disloyalty on the part of any Issei or Nisei was common among many Americans. • Issei: those born in Japan, regarded by the U.S. government as ineligible for U.S. citizenship. • Nisei: those born to Japanese parents in the U.S., thus making them U.S. citizens. • 1/3 of the population of Hawaii was comprised of those of Japanese descent, thus many of them were not interned, however the islands were placed under martial law.
Internment • Japanese assets were frozen after the attack on Pearl Harbor, making it difficult for many Japanese Americans to move from the West Coast. • March 2, 1942 • Internment is issued
Timeline • March 18, 1942The president signs Executive Order 9102 establishing the War Relocation Authority (WRA) with Milton Eisenhower as director. It is allocated $5.5 million. • March 21, 1942The first advance groups of Japanese American "volunteers" arrive at Manzanar, CA. The WRA would take over on June 1 and transform it into a "relocation center."
Timeline • March 24, 1942The first Civilian Exclusion Order issued by the Army is issued for the Bainbridge Island area near Seattle. The forty-five families there are given one week to prepare. By the end of October, 108 exclusion orders would be issued, and all Japanese Americans in Military Area No. 1 and the California portion of No. 2 would be incarcerated.(http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/timeline.html) (www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/od9066ph.html)
Life in Internment Camps • "In the detention centers, families lived in substandard housing, had inadequate nutrition and health care, and had their livelihoods destroyed: many continued to suffer psychologically long after their release" - "Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians"
Life in Internment Camps • "In desert camps, the evacuees met severe extremes of temperature. In winter it reached 35 degrees below zero, and summer brought temperatures as high as 115 degrees. Rattlesnakes and desert wildlife added danger to discomfort."- Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.
Life in Manzanar Photos taken by Ansel Adams (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage)
In 1988, Congress implemented the Civil Liberties Act, apologizing on behalf of the nation for the "grave injustice" done to persons of Japanese ancestry. Congress declared that the internments had been "motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership" and authorized $20,000 payments to Japanese Americans who had suffered injustices during World War II.
Korematsu vs. United States • Topic: Constitutionality of Executive Order 9006 • Korematsu argued Executive Order 9006 was unconstitutional and violated the fifth amendment • “No person shall...be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law” • Is he right?
Block 1 Groups • Supreme Court Judge • Seth, Haley C., Merrisa, Devan, Grace, Liam, Arielle, Ada, Amir, Kate • Court Witnesses • Tucker, Basaree, Erica, Jason, Jaclyn, Olivia, Kris, Mitch, Danielle, Megan • Prosecutors • Claire, Victoria, Tyler, Zach, Kenil, Liza, Nick, Tristan, Johnny, Harris • Defense Attorney • Rachel, Anh, Heather, Laura, Haley H., Aaliyah, Jacob, Fabian, Ethan, Megan
Block 3 Groups • Supreme Court Judges • Madelyn, Brandon W., Krista, Raquan, Samantha, Isabella, Matt, Brandon S., Jeff T. • Court Witnesses • Sam, Karla, Markell, Tyree, Paula, Tia, Katya, Carissa, Eric, Drew • Prosecutors • Erica, Emma, Patrick, David, Jeff M., Brianna, Lane, Justin, Lindsey • Defense Attorney • Tyler, Jonathon, Tiffany, Joyssa, Ariana, Sophia, Mishayla, Josh, Nick
After you are in your groups Judges- Read over the material in front of you on the court case. Your responsibility is to judge whether or not Korematsu’s constitutional rights were violated, NOT whether or not Japanese Internment in humane Court Witness: You are the jury, take notes during the prosecutors and defense attorney’s presentations, you will meet to decide whether the journey finds Executive Order 9006 constitutional after the presentations Prosecutors and Defense Attorneys: Using the handout, come up with a creative way to present the strongest sides of the case, discuss in your group how you will do this and choose two speakers to present the material