Allied forces trapped the Desert Fox • Suez Canal was a key location • Oilfields and India • Battle at El Alamein • British blitzkrieg against Rommel • (the Desert Fox) • very successful –turning point in North Africa • Allied forces closed from East and West
Germany in the Soviet Union • 1941 – Germany stalls outside Leningrad and Moscow (winter) • Germany continues to advance (towards Stalingrad) • Winter falls again • 91,000 soldiers surrender in Stalingrad (of 280,000 who were originally there) • Became captives
Fascist Rule Crumbled in Italy • Allied forces invade from N. Africa through Italy • Mussolini is forced to resign because Italy failed in stopping the invasion • New premier renounced pact with Hitler • Hitler then invades Italy to fight Allied forces
Allies Invade France • 2 million British, American, Canadian troops • Phantom army to confuse (Hitler was misdirected) • 5,300 ships • 13,000 airborne troops • Opens the door to Europe • 3 months – Allies in Paris
German Reich Collapsed • War on two fronts • “we shall never capitulate – never. We may be destroyed, but if we are, we shall drag a world with us – a world in flames.” • Hitler killed himself (April) • May – war is officially over
Atomic Bomb after a long island-hopping campaign Final Horror Ended the Pacific War
Argument for the bomb • Iwo Jima – 5 square miles – 25,000 marines • Okinawa – 40,000 American casualties, 110,000 Japanese soldiers, 80,000 civilians • Bataan Death March – 20,000 Americans surrender and are marched 80 miles to a POW Camp • Surrender is KEY!
Some interesting questions surrounding the bomb: • Why was it not used against Germany? • Why were German and Italian immigrants not put into camps? • How was the dropping of the bomb related to the Soviet Union? • Why not warn Japan first?
Franck Committee: Scientists Should demonstrate it first Military target Interim Committee Military men Psychological effect Use ASAP Civilian and military target Cause unconditional surrender COMMITTEE DISCUSSIONS SO WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
DROPPING THE ATOMIC BOMB • This was an acceleration of current US policy: • Fire-bombing of Tokyo – 84,000 people die in 12 hours • Aug 6 – Hiroshima – 70,000 die instantly • Aug 8 – Stalin enters war • Aug 9 – Nagasaki – 80,000 die instantly • Aug 10 – Japan declares peace • 300,000 degree fire ball incinerates everything