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INTRODUCTION In this century, it is believed that crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce and costly. • Day-to-day, fuel economy of engines is getting improved and will continue to improve. However, enormous increase in number of vehicles has started dictating the demand for fuel. • With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative fuel technology will become more common in the coming decades. • Because of the high cost of petroleum products, energy security , emission problems some developing countries are trying to use alternate fuels for their vehicles.
Escalating Prices Of Crude Oil
Anthropogenic Global Warming History and Future Future Global Warming Normal Interglacial Plunge into next ice Age. Modern Global Warming “Neolithic global warming”.
Why is Global Warming Bad? The fast rise in temperature may trigger the next major ice sooner than it would otherwise occur, due to switching off Atlantic Ocean currents. Neolithic Global Warming Future Global Warming Plunge into ice Age. Modern Global Warming • Rapid changes in temperature cause agriculture possibilities to switch from one area of the world to another. Thus, many people will die due to lack of food. • Rapid increases in temperature cause more severe weather to occur, such as hurricanes. Thus, many people will die (have already died!). • Rapid increases in temperature cause the glacial ice at the North and South Poles to melt, raising sea levels; which will flood many major cities of the world.
LIQUID FUELS: Liquid fuels are preferred for IC engines because they are easy to store and have reasonably good calorific value. The main alternative is the alcohol • ALCOHOL: Alcohols are attractive alternate fuels because they can be obtained from both natural and manufactured sources. Methanol and ethanol are two kinds of alcohols that seem most promising.
What about Using Ethanol and/or Biodiesel for Fuel? Farmers must use biofuels to produce biofuels, not petro fuels! Closed carbon dioxide greenhouse gas cycle for biofuels. Ethanol & biodiesel are sustainable forms of solar energy.
Structure of ethanol molecule. Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by photosynthesis. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 CH3CH2OH During ethanol fermentation, glucose is decomposed into ethanol and carbon dioxide. C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH+ 2 CO2 + heat All bonds are single bonds During combustionethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat: CH3CH2OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + heat
Ethanol • HOW IS IT MADE NOW? • HISTORICALLY MADE FROM CORN AND OTHER STARCH SOURCES OR FROM NATURAL SUGARS BY FERMENTATION • COMMON SOURCES INCLUDE RICE, POTATO, CASSAVA – PLUS CORN AND OTHER GRAINS • MANUFACTURING PROCESS WAS VERY ENERGY-INTENSIVE, BUT IS NOW LESS SO IN MOST MODERN PLANTS, DUE TO ADVANCES IN DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY
Ethanol co2 FERMENTER DRY MILL STARCH CORN SYRUP CORN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSER ‘DRY’ FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCT STILL DEHYDRATOR HEAT
Michael Wang – Argonne National Laboratory, Aug. 2005 Energy Input ratio = input for EtOH / input for gasoline = .74/1.23 = 0.6 : 1 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com
Mass and Energy Balance Summary of mass balance Out of 87730kg. Of sugar beet Plants we get 3775kg.(4775 l) Of EtOH 38990kg. Of tops & leaves 2760kg of beet pulp 1220kg. Of undecanted stillage Remaining water by subtraction
FUEL FOR FARM OPERATIONS (VERY SMALL) THE FARMING OPERATION TAKES ALL ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND NATURAL ENERGY INPUTS AND CONVERTS THEM INTO ENERGY CONTAINED IN A CROP. THIS CROP MAY BE BIOMASS OF ALMOST ANY KIND OR, MORE NARROWLY, MAY BE CORN, AN OILSEED CROP SUCH AS SOYBEAN OR RAPESEED OR A FOOD CROP PLUS A CROP RESIDUE USED FOR CONVERSION INTO ENERGY FARM PRODUCT(S) (ADD: TRANSPORTATION AND HANDLING ENERGY) FERTILIZER (VERY SMALL) NATURAL ENERGY INPUTS (VERY LARGE) FARM PRODUCT(S) : TREAT AS FEEDSTOCK FOR CONVERSION PROCESS FARM ▲ REFINERY THE ENERGY CONVERSION OPERATION EXTRACTS COMPONENTS HAVING AN ENERGY VALUE FROM THE CROP BY PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND/OR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING. THE REQUIRED PROCESS ENERGY INPUTS MAY BE DERIVED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM THE FARM PRODUCTS OR BY BURNING FOSSIL FUELS. BY-PRODUCTS MAY OR MAY NOT BE INCLUDED IN THE ENERGY BALANCE DEPENDING ON THEIR USE. PROCESS HEAT (TYPICALLY FOSSIL FUEL) ELECTRICAL POWER FOR PUMPS, ETC. NON-ENERGY BYPRODUCTS (QUANTIFY BUT EXCLUDE): E.G., UNUSED WASTE, ANIMAL FOOD OTHER INPUTS AS RELEVANT: CHEMICALS WATER STEAM NET ENERGY PRODUCT ADD: TRANSPORTATION, BLENDING AND DISTRIBUTION, ENERGY USE
Energy balance calculation • (GJ/ha)
BIOMASS TO ETHANOL • AN INTEGRATED, FULL-SCALE COMMERCIAL BIOPROCESS PLANT CONSISTS OF FIVE BASIC UNIT OPERATIONS • 1.FEEDSTOCK PREPARATION; • 2.DECRYSTALLIZATION/HYDROLYSIS REACTION VESSEL; • 3.SOLIDS/LIQUID FILTRATION; • 4.SEPARATION OF THE ACID AND SUGARS; • 5.FERMENTATION OF THE SUGARS; AND, • 6.PRODUCT PURIFICATION.
BIOMASS TO ETHANOL ABENGOA • PROPOSED PLANT IN KANSAS • www.abengoabioenergy.com/research/index.cfm?page=7 • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 700 TONS/DAY (210,000 TONS/YR*) CORN STOVER, WHEAT STRAW, MILO STUBBLE, SWITCHGRASS, ETC. • PLANT WILL PRODUCE: • 11.4 MILLION GALLONS OF ETOH/YR • ENOUGH ENERGY TO POWER THE FACILITY • EXCESS ENERGY WILL BE USED TO POWER ADJACENT CORN DRY GRIND MILL
BIOMASS TO ETHANOL (2)ALICO/BRI (COSKATA IS SIMILAR) • PROPOSED PLANT IN LABELLE, FLORIDA • www.brienergy.com/pages/process01.html • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 770 TONS/DAY (231,000 TONS/YR*) YARD, WOOD, & VEGETATIVE WASTES • PLANT WILL PRODUCE (ASSUMING 24 HR/DAY, 300 DAY/YR): • 13.9 MILLION GALLONS OF ETOH/YR • 6,255 KW OF ELECTRIC POWER (~45 GWH/YR*) • 8.8 TONS H2/DAY (2,640 TONS H2 /YR*) • 50 TONS AMMONIA/DAY (15,000 TONS AMMONIA/YR* )
to silica processing (as required) A 10-Step Overview Conversion of Cellulose/Hemicellulose to Mixed Sugars Using Patented Arkenol Process Technology of Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Simplified Flow Diagram Acid 2 7 Reconcentration Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Strong Sulfuric Acid 4 Steam 1st stage 1 Hydrolysis Condensate Return 2nd stage Solids Filter 5 Biomass Hydrolysis Steam Solids Filter 3 Pump Lignin 9 Steam Acid/Sugar Solution Acid Recovery Water 10 Lime Mixed Sugars to Fermentation or Direct conversion - Hydrogenation - Thermal conversion Liquor 6 Purified Centrifuge Sugar Solution Chromatographic Separation Mixing 8 Gypsum Solids Tank http://www.luefireethanol.com/
BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. • PROPOSED PLANT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 700 TONS/DAY (210,000 TONS/YR*) OF SORTED GREEN WASTE AND WOOD WASTE FROM LANDFILLS • PLANT WILL PRODUCE: • 19 MILLION GALLONS OF ETOH/YR • TECHNOLOGY: • ARKENOL CONCLUDED THAT CONCENTRATED ACID HYDROLYSIS WAS THE ONLY PROCESS ECONOMICALLY VIABLE AND CAPABLE OF PROCESSING ANY CELLULOSE WASTES • ARKENOL AND AFFILIATES HAVE MUCH EXPERIENCE *based on a 300 day year
BROIN COMPANIES • PROPOSED PLANT IN EMMETSBURG (PALO ALTO COUNTY), IOWA • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 842 TONS/DAY (252,600 TONS/YR*) OF CORN FIBER, COBS AND STALKS • PLANT WILL PRODUCE: • 125 MILLION GALLONS OF ETOH/YR (25% OF THEM ARE CELLULOSIC ETHANOL) • TECHNOLOGY: • BROIN FRACTIONATION, ALSO TRADEMARKED BFRAC™. *based on a 300 day year
BFRAC™ • THIS NEW BIO-REFINING TECHNOLOGY SEPARATES THE CORN INTO THREE FRACTIONS INCLUDING FIBER, GERM AND ENDOSPERM. • THE ENDOSPERM IS THEN FERMENTED TO CREATE ETHANOL, WHILE THE REMAINING FRACTIONS ARE CONVERTED INTO NEW VALUE-ADDED CO-PRODUCTS, INCLUDING DAKOTA GOLD HP™, DAKOTA BRAN™ CAKE, CORN GERM MEAL, AND CORN OIL. • IN ADDITION TO THESE HIGH VALUE CO-PRODUCTS, THE PROCESS ALSO RESULTS IN INCREASED ETHANOL YIELDS AND DECREASED ENERGY CONSUMPTION.
IOGEN BIOREFINERY PARTNERS, LLC • PROPOSED PLANT IN SHELLEY, IDAHO • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 700 TONS/DAY (210,000 TONS/YR) AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES INCLUDING WHEAT STRAW, BARLEY STRAW, CORN STOVER, SWITCHGRASS, AND RICE STRAW AS FEEDSTOCKS • PLANT WILL PRODUCE: • 18 MILLION GALLONS OF ETOH/YR • TECHNOLOGY - TRADITIONAL ENZYME FERMENTATION PRODUCTION • Iogen Corp, “CELLULOSE ETHANOL: Clean Fuel for Today and Tomorrow” • http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/Environment/climatechange/docs/biomass/Image4.gif •  Iogen Ethanol process: http://www.gmcanada.com/inm/gmcanada/english/about/MissionGreen/Daily/Sep20.html *based on a 300 day year
IOGEN’S PATENTED ETHANOL PROCESS  #1  #2 #3 #5 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #6 #7 #8 Block Diagram of 8 stage Process  #5 #6 #7 #8 Products of 8 stage Process  Assuming 320 of EtOH L/dry ton Yields approximately 17.75 Mgal EtOH Block Diagram of 8 stage Process 
RANGE FUEL’S PATENTED ETHANOL PROCESS • PROXIMITY TO BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK AND ETHANOL MARKETS • RAIL AND ROAD ACCESS • WATER, POWER, GAS, AND SEWER AVAILABILITY. • OPTIMAL FEEDSTOCK DRAW ( 45MI AND 75 MI RADII)  “Vinod Khosla,”Mostly convenient truths”
RANGE FUELS • PROPOSED PLANT IN SOPERTON, GEORGIA • RAW MATERIAL INPUT: • 1200 TONS/DAY (360,000 TONS/YR*) WOOD RESIDUES AND WOOD BASED ENERGY CROPS. • PLANT WILL PRODUCE: • 40 MILLION GALLONS OF ETHANOL/YEAR • 9 MILLION GALLONS OF METHANOL/YEAR • TECHNOLOGY • THERMO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION PROCESS (THE “K2 SYSTEM”) • CONVERT BIOMASS TO A SYNTHETIC GAS • CONVERT THE GAS TO ETHANOL. *based on a 300 day year
RANGE FUEL’S PATENTED ETHANOL PROCESS - RATIONALE • FERMENTATION AND ACID HYDROLYSIS CAN TAKE DAYS TO OCCUR, BUT THERMAL CONVERSION BREAKS DOWN ORGANIC MATTER AND CONVERTS IT TO ETHANOL IN MINUTES. • THE PROCESS USES LITTLE ENERGY TO START; IT FUELS ITSELF IN A SELF-SUSTAINING FASHION; IT PRODUCES VIRTUALLY NO WASTE PRODUCTS; IT EMITS VERY LOW LEVELS OF GREENHOUSE GAS. • RANGE FUELS CLAIMS IT CAN PRODUCE MORE ETHANOL FOR A GIVEN AMOUNT OF ENERGY EXPENDED THAN IS POSSIBLE WITH ANY OTHER COMPETING PROCESS. • DEPENDING UPON THE QUANTITY AND AVAILABILITY OF FEEDSTOCK, THE K2 SYSTEM CAN SCALE FROM ENTRY-LEVEL SYSTEMS TO LARGE CONFIGURATIONS. • THIS RANGE OF SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WILL ALLOW THE K2 TO BE PLACED NEAR THE BIOMASS LOCATION REDUCING TRANSPORTATION COSTS, AND WILL ALLOW THE MOST ECONOMICAL SIZE SYSTEM TO BE DEPLOYED. • SINCE THE SYSTEM IS MODULAR, ADDING ANOTHER MODULE – WHICH IS EASY TO SHIP AND INSTALL, INCREASES THE OUTPUT.  “Another Cellulosic Ethanol Plant Announced “, http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/2007/02/another_cellulo.html
Blending 1] Automobile fuels be “oxygenated” in order to reduce air pollution. Since alcohols contain oxygen, interest in ethanol as an oxygenate. 2]In addition, removal of lead from gasoline renewed interest in ethanol as octane booster. There are alternatives to ethanol for both of these needs. The oil industry originally pushed MTBE as an oxygenate, but it was phased out after discovery that it was causing water pollution problems. 3] While E10/E15 is intended for all automobiles, a blend called “E85” is intended for flex fuel vehicles. E85 is nominally 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, albeit it can be as high as 30% gasoline in cold climates in winter. The principle reason for blending some gasoline into ethanol for flex fuel vehicles is to improve starting in cold weather.
4] above, ethanol is separated from the water in which it is produced via a process called distillation. The distillation process does not remove all of the water. Having some water mixed in with the fuel is actually improves performance of an internal combustion engine, as the water provides extra mass to absorb the heat of combustion and turn it into high pressure steam for mechanical energy. 5] ethanol as low as 160 proof (80% ethanol, 20% water) works very well in automobile engines designed to run on alcohol. 6] However, water and gasoline don’t mix well (are not “miscible”, in chemical terms), so the water must be removed when producing ethanol-gasoline blends. This dry or “anhydrous” ethanol is needed to prevent phase separation of the fuel components in ethanol - gasoline blends.
Power Making Fuel Characteristics • 1.Octane Rating [MON] • 2.Burning Rate • 3.Latent Heat of Vaporization • [kJ/kg] • 4.Energy Value [MJ/kg] • & • 5.Reduction in Green house gases • Octane Rating • Burning Rate • Latent Heat of Vaporization • Energy Value 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com
1. Octane • Measures fuel’s resistance to pre-ignition and detonation, commonly called “knocking” • Three common octane ratings for motor fuels: • Research Octane Number (RON) • Motor Octane Number (MON) • (R+M/2) method 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com
1. Octane (cotd.) • MON rating is most useful to racers because it is measured under high loads and at high RPM’s • High MON rated fuels allow the use of higher compression and advanced spark timing • E85 delivers MON octane ratings equal to, or better than, most gasoline 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com
2. Burning Rate • The speed at which fuel burns and releases its heat energy • There is less time for fuel to burn at high RPM’s, so rapid burning fuel is a must in racing • Peak horsepower (kW) and engine efficiency are realized if fuel is almost completely burned by 20 degrees after Top Dead Center (TDC) 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com
3. Latent Heat of Vaporization • Measures a fuel’s ability to cool the intake charge and combustion chamber • Measured in kJ/ lt. • Higher rated fuels remove heat better 800-597-9747 www.iqlearningsystems.com