Download
unit 9 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Unit 9 PowerPoint Presentation

Unit 9

142 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Unit 9

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Unit 9 Buses, Video, and Upgrades

  2. CPU Parallel Port Memory Keyboard Controller Video Adapter The Data Bus System Controller

  3. CPU Memory Keyboard Controller Video Adapter System Controller

  4. CPU Memory Video Adapter

  5. CPU Socket (Slot 1) Bus Wires System Controller

  6. Expansion Buses

  7. What is a Bus? • Signal Pathways • A way of passing information between components inside and outside the computer. • A modular way of expanding the functions or capabilities of the computer.

  8. PC Bus Architectures • ISA • MCA • EISA • VL-Bus • PCI • AGP • PCI Express • PC Card

  9. The Original IBM PC Bus • Introduced on the original IBM PC • 8- bit data path • 4.77-MHz clock • 8 Interrupts - Only one of which was available for expansion boards. • 4 DMA Channels - Only one of which was available for expansion boards.

  10. The Original IBM PC Bus 8-Bit Card 8-Bit Slot

  11. Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus • Introduced on the IBM AT Computer • 16-bit data path • Backward compatible with IBM-PC Bus • 8-MHz clock • 15 Interrupts • 7 DMA Channels

  12. Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus 16-Bit Card 16-Bit Slot Added Pins 8-Bit Section

  13. Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus 8-Bit Card 16-Bit Slot

  14. Micro-Channel Architecture (MCA) Bus • Introduced on the IBM PS/2 • 16-bit or 32-bit data path • 10-MHz clock • Configured by software rather than by jumpers or switches • Not compatible with the ISA bus • Bus Mastering

  15. Bus Mastering • Allows data to be passed from one device to another without CPU intervention. • Allows a controller card to take control of the bus, leaving the CPU free to concentrate on other tasks.

  16. Bus Mastering vs. DMA • DMA can send data from peripheral to RAM or from RAM to peripheral, without the intervention of the CPU. • Bus Mastering can send data from peripheral to peripheral, without the intervention of the CPU.

  17. Extended ISA Bus (EISA) • The industry’s answer to the MCA bus • Backward compatible with ISA • 16-bit or 32-bit data path • 8-MHz Clock • Configured by software, not jumpers or switches • Bus Mastering

  18. CPU High Speed CPU Bus BUS Controller Low Speed I/O Bus ISA Bus Slots

  19. CPU Local Bus Slots High Speed CPU Bus BUS Controller Low Speed I/O Bus ISA Bus Slots

  20. VESA Local Bus (VL-Bus) • Clock speed same as the processor • 32-bit data path • Regular ISA slot with local bus connector added • Bus Mastering

  21. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) • Developed for Pentium-class processors • 32-bit and 64-bit data path versions • 33-MHz Clock • Processor Independent • Plug and Play with Bus Mastering

  22. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus

  23. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) • Developed for high speed graphics cards • Frees the PCI bus from making video transfers • Used only for video cards • Considered a port rather than a bus • 66 MHz, 32-Bit

  24. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)

  25. The PC Card TYPE TYPE TYPE 3 2 1 Memory Hard Disk Drive Modem or LAN Adapter

  26. PC Card • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) • Originally designed for adding memory to portable computers • A universal bus that can accommodate any type of device • Can be used with desktop PCs with the proper adapter • “Hot Swapping” capability

  27. What is theUniversal Serial Bus?

  28. Feature... • It’s an external expansion bus using cables (outside the PC). • Can daisy chain 127 peripherals to a port

  29. Feature... • Plug-and-Play, hot-pluggable, automatic configuration • USB 1 provides 12 megabits/second data transfer rate • USB 2 provides 480 Mbps • USB peripherals can be powered by the USB bus (+5 volts DC).

  30. Feature... • Standardized connectors • Five meter-long peripheral connections

  31. Ordinary USB Peripherals • Cartridge, Tape, and Floppy Drives • Modems • Printers, Scanners • ISDN, T1 Interfaces (Network Applications) • Input devices such as Mice, Joysticks, Keyboards , Graphics Tablets • Multimedia Game Equipment

  32. Not So Ordinary USB Peripherals • Digital Cameras • Digital Speakers • Video Monitors • Biometric Security Devices • Multi-User Games • Digital Audio Devices

  33. More Not So Ordinary USB Peripherals • Hubs • CTI Devices • Telephony (PBX, Digital Telephones)

  34. Video Systems and Monitors

  35. Horizontal Deflection Coils

  36. Horizontal Scanning Frequency • The number of lines per second scanned by the monitor. • Varies from about 15 KHz to over 50 KHz. • A popular scan rate is 31.5 KHz. • At this rate, one horizontal line is scanned in 26.66 microseconds.

  37. The Horizontal Scanning Frequency is determined by the Horizontal Sync Signal.

  38. Vertical Deflection Coil

  39. Vertical Retrace

  40. Vertical Scanning Frequency (Refresh Rate) • The number of times per second that the whole screen is scanned. • Varies from about 50Hz to over 100Hz. • Popular vertical scan rates are 60Hz and 70Hz. • At 70Hz, the entire screen is painted in about 14.28 milliseconds.

  41. The Vertical Scanning Frequency is determined by the Vertical Sync Signal.