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Unit 9

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Unit 9

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  1. Unit 9 Anatomic Terms

  2. Anatomy • ana/tomy = study of naming body structures • Origin • Greek • anatome = cutting apart • Galen • Greek anatomist who dissected corpses to identify and name body parts using both Greek and Latin terms

  3. Summary of Directional Terms Used with the Body

  4. Summary of Directional Terms Used with the Body

  5. Summary of Directional Terms Used with the Body

  6. Terms with anter/o • anter/o/later/al = front and side • anter/o/medi/al = front and middle • anter/o/super/ior = front and top

  7. Terms with poster/o • poster/o/later/al = back and side • poster/o/extern/al = back and outside • poster/o/intern/al = back and inside • anter/o/poster/ior = pertaining to front and back • From front to back

  8. Terms with ventr/o and dors/o • ventr/o/dors/al = from front to back • dors/o/cephal/ad = toward back of head • -ad = suffix meaning toward • ventr/ad and anter/ior = toward front

  9. Proximal • proxim/al = closer to designated point • E.g., fracture in upper part of femur closest to hip is proximal to end of femur • E.g., bone in part of finger (phalanx) closest to palm is proximal phalanx

  10. Distal • dist/al = farther from designated point • E.g., fracture in lower part of femur away from hip is distal to end of femur • E.g., bone in tip of finger (phalanx) farther from origin of finger is distal phalanx

  11. Indicating Areas and Directions • medi/o/later/al = middle and side • super/o/later/al = above and to side • cephal/ad = toward head • caud/ad = toward tail • Lower spine • cephal/o/caud/al = head to tail

  12. Planes of the Body • Dividing body into slices or planes • Method of studying anatomy and diagnosing • Used in tomography and sonography • sagitt/al = cut made at midline to divide body into equal right and left halves • mid/sagitt/al plane = plane resulting from cut

  13. Animation Click Here to Play Body Planes Animation

  14. Axilla • Armpit • axill/ary = pertaining to region of armpit • axill/ary temperature = body temperature measured under arm • Measures 1° Fahrenheit lower than oral temperature

  15. Axilla • mid/axill/ary = fifth intercostal space in line with middle of armpit • Location of electrocardiography (EKG) chest electrode

  16. Coronal • coron/al = crown or encircling • coron/al suture line = line where bones join at crown of skull • coron/a dentis = crown of tooth • coron/ary arteries = arteries that encircle and supply heart with blood

  17. Umbilicus • Naval • Belly button • omphal/o = combining form • Origins: • umbilicus • Latin • omphalos • Greek

  18. Umbilical Conditions and Procedures • omphal/itis = inflammation of umbilicus • omphal/o/rrhagia = hemorrhage of umbilicus • omphal/o/rrhea = discharge from umbilicus • omphal/o/rrhexis = rupture of umbilicus • omphal/o/cele and umbilic/o/cele = herniation of umbilicus • omphal/ectomy = excision of umbilicus

  19. Signs and Symptoms • Sign • Objective, observable information about patient • E.g., skin color changes, lab tests, measurements • Symptom • Subjective information reported by patient about feelings and experiences • E.g., pain, nausea, tiredness

  20. Knowledge • gnosia and gnosis = knowledge • Greek • pro/gnos/is = foreknowledge • Predicting outcome of disease • pro- = prefix meaning before or in front of • E.g., pro/cephal/ic = in front of head

  21. Terms with dia- • dia/gnos/is = knowing through • Identifying disease through signs and symptoms • dia- = prefix meaning through or throughout • dia/rrhea = watery stool flowing through • dia/scope = instrument through which skin examined

  22. Dialysis • dia/lysis = process of destroying waste products in blood by diffusion through membrane • Treatment for patients with kidney failure • Two types: • Peritoneal • Hemodialysis

  23. Terms with aer/o • aer/o = used in words to mean air • Examples: • aer/ial = pertaining to air • aer/o/phobia = abnormal fear of air • aer/o/therapy = treatment with air • aer/o/cele = herniation containing air

  24. Terms with aer/o • Examples: • aer/o/bic = needing air (oxygen) to live • Aerobic bacteria need air to live • One type causes pneumonia

  25. Terms with aer/o • Examples: • an/aer/o/bic = existing without air (oxygen) • Anaerobic bacteria do not need air to live • E.g., Tetanus bacillus • Bacteria that causes lockjaw • One type causes botulism • Serious type of food poisoning

  26. Terms with bios • bios = life • Greek • Examples: • bi/o/ology = science and study of living things • bi/o/logist = one who studies living things • bi/o/genesis = formation of living things

  27. Terms with bios • Examples: • bi/o/ethics = topics that deal with decisions about life and medical treatments that concern right and wrong • bi/o/chemistry = study of chemical changes in living things • bi/o/psy = excision of living tissue for examination

  28. Terms with chrom/o • chrom/o = combining form for color • Origin • Greek • chroma = color

  29. Terms with chrom/o • Examples: • chrom/o/cyte = any colored cell • chrom/o/blast = embryonic pigment cell • chrom/o/genesis = formation of pigment • chrom/o/lysis = destruction of color in cell • chrom/o/meter = instrument for measuring amount of color in substance

  30. Staining Cells • chrom/o/philic = attracts color and stains easily • phil = word root meaning attracted to • E.g., some leukocytes • chrom/o/phobic = will not stain • Gram-negative bacteria will not attract color from Gram stain • a/chrom/o/philic = something that does not stain easily

  31. Terms with dys- and eu- • dys- = difficult, painful, abnormal, or bad • eu- = easy • Examples: • dys/enter/y = infections of small intestine • dys/men/o/rrhea = difficult or painful menstrual flow

  32. Terms with dys- and eu-

  33. Terms with dys- and eu-

  34. Euthanasia • eu/than/asia = easy or peaceful death • Origin • Greek • thanatos = death • Subject of many ethical medical questions

  35. Eugenics • eu/gen/ics = good development • Genetic engineering • Alteration of genetic material to produce desirable changes in traits

  36. Eugenics • Eugenic sterilization • Selective sterilization of individuals that society believes have undesirable traits • E.g., severely mentally impaired adults • Controversial topic of bioethics

  37. Menstruation • Menses • Menarche • Female’s first menstrual period • Origin • Greek • men = month • arche = beginning

  38. Menstruation • men/o/rrhagia = excessive menstrual hemorrhage • men/o/pause = permanent cessation of menstruation • a/men/o/rrhea = absence of menstrual flow • men/o/stasis = stopping menstrual flow

  39. Animation Click Here to Play Ovulation Animation

  40. Suffix: -stasis • -stasis = act or condition of stopping or controlling • Examples: • phleb/o/statis and ven/o/stasis = control of blood flow in veins • arteri/o/stasis = control of flow in arteries • lymph/o/stasis = control of lymph flow • hem/o/stat = instrument used to control blood flow

  41. Syphilis • Sexually transmitted disease • syphil/o = combining form • Examples: • syphil/o/pathy = any syphilitic disease • syphil/o/phobia = fear of contracting syphilis

  42. Syphilis • Examples: • syphil/o/psych/osis = mental condition caused by syphilis • syphil/oma = syphilitic tumor • syphil/o/therapy = therapy for syphilis

  43. Terms with pseud/o • pseudo- = false • Examples: • pseud/o/science = false science • pseud/o/mania = psychosis when patients have false or pretended mental disorder • pseud/o/esthesi/a = false or imaginary sensation

  44. Terms with pseud/o • Examples: • pseud/o/paralysis = false paralysis • Not due to nerve damage • pseud/o/cesis and pseud/o/pregnancy = false pregnancy • pseud/o/cyst = false cyst • pseud/o/edema = false puffiness • Not due to fluid accumulation

  45. Terms with pseud/o • Examples: • pseud/o/hyper/trophy = false growth of organ or part due to another type of tissue • pseud/o/neur/oma = false nerve tumor • pseud/o/tubercul/osis = false tuberculosis

  46. Viscera • Internal organs • viscus = singular form • viscer/o = combining form • Examples: • viscer/al = pertaining to internal organs • viscer/o/genic = development of organs

  47. Viscera • Examples: • viscer/o/motor = producing or related to movements of viscera • viscer/ad = toward viscera • viscer/o/skeletal = pertaining to organs and skeleton • viscer/o/pariet/al = pertaining to viscera and abdominal wall

  48. Viscera • Examples: • viscer/o/pleur/al = relating to pleural and thoracic viscera • viscer/o/sensor/y = sensory function of organs • viscer/o/ptosis = prolapse of organs • viscer/algia = pain in organs

  49. Membranes • viscer/al periton/eum = membrane that lines organs of abdominal cavity • viscer/al pleural membrane = membrane that lines lungs

  50. Terms with pariet/o • pariet/o = combining form for wall • Examples: • pariet/al pleura = membrane on chest cavity wall • pariet/al peritoneum = membrane on abdominal cavity wall