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Macdonald and Beyond. MACDONALD IN 1887. MACDONALD WON ANOTHER ELECTION IN 1887 BY A COUNT OF 123-92 HE WAS IN JEOPARDY HEADING INTO THE ELECTION VILIFIED IN QUEBEC FOR KILLING RIEL NATIONAL POLICY WAS NOT HELPING THE ECONOMY IN THE MARITIMES. CONT….

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macdonald in 1887
MACDONALD IN 1887
  • MACDONALD WON ANOTHER ELECTION IN 1887 BY A COUNT OF 123-92
  • HE WAS IN JEOPARDY HEADING INTO THE ELECTION
  • VILIFIED IN QUEBEC FOR KILLING RIEL
  • NATIONAL POLICY WAS NOT HELPING THE ECONOMY IN THE MARITIMES
slide3
CONT…
  • EVEN IN ONTARIO THERE WAS SOME ANTI MACDONALD SENTIMENT
  • WANTED SPECIAL RIGHTS BECAUSE IT WAS THE “MOST IMPORTANT” PROVINCE
  • ALMOST EVERY PROVINCE HAD PROBLEMS WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BEFORE THE ELECTION OF 1887
  • BUT MACDONALD STILL WON
blake and liberals
BLAKE AND LIBERALS
  • MACDONALD’S WIN CAN LARGELY BE ATTRIBUTED TO EDWARD BLAKE’S INABILITY TO UNITE THE LIBERALS
  • BLAKE BECAME LIBERAL LEADER AFTER THE RESIGNATION OF ALEXANDER MACKENZIE IN 1880
blake libs cont
BLAKE & LIBS. CONT…
  • THE LIBERAL PARTY REALLY DOES NOT EXIST AT THIS POINT
  • MACKENZIE ALLIED A GROUP OF NON CONSERVATIVES TO SECURE VICTORY AFTER THE PACIFIC SCANDAL
  • SINCE THEN THE LIBERALS ARE A LOOSE COALITION OF PARTIES THAT DO NOT UNITE FULLY ON ALL ISSUES
  • THIS KILLS THEM IN THE ELECTIONS OF 1882 AND 1887
liberals squabbaling
LIBERALS SQUABBALING
  • SOME LIBERALS FAVOURED RECIPROCITY TO THE US, OTHERS IMPERIAL UNIONS WITH THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH
  • THUS THERE WAS NO SET POLICY THAT OPPOSED THE CONSERVATIVE NATIONAL POLICY
  • IN THE MATTER OF RIEL, MANY LIBERALS VOTED TO HANG LOUIS RIEL INCLUDING BLAKE HIMSELF
  • THIS ROBBED THE LIBERALS OF BEING THE VOICE FOR QUEBEC
blake s mistakes
BLAKE’S MISTAKES
  • AFTER THE RIEL EXECUTION, THE HOUSE HAD A MOTION BEFORE IT TO EXPRESS REGRET THAT RIEL HAD BEEN EXECUTED
  • IT WAS A FREE VOTE, SO MANY CONSERVATIVES FROM QUEBEC VOTED IN FAVOUR, MANY ENGLISH LIBERALS VOTED AGAINST IT.
  • THIS SHOWS BLAKE’S INABILITY TO WIN SUPPORT FROM A CRISIS FACING THE CONSERVATIVES. HE SHOULD HAVE PLAYED THIS TO THE HILT
  • INSTEAD HE VOTES WITH THE “KILLERS OF RIEL”
laurier stands up
LAURIER STANDS UP
  • ONE YOUNG LIBERAL HOWEVER DID RISE, GAVE AN IMPASSIONED SPEECH, CONDEMNING MACDONALD AND ENGLISH CANADA
  • IN THIS SPEECH HE SAID THAT MACDONALD HAD USED THE RIEL NORTH WEST REBELLION TO DRAW ATTENTION TO THE NEED FOR THE RAILWAY
  • HE WENT ON TO SAY THAT THE GOV’T OF MACDONALD FOSTERED THE REBELLION BY YEARS OF NEGLECT.
  • THIS MAN SPOKE SO ELOQUENTLY THAT MANY IN THE LIBERAL CAUCUS ESPECIALLY FROM QUEBEC SAW HIM AS THEIR FUTURE.
  • THIS MAN WAS WILFRID LAURIER
laurier cont
LAURIER CONT…
  • BLAKE HAS NOW LOST TWO ELECTIONS AND THE LIBERALS LOOK FOR A NEW LEADER
  • BLAKE HIMSELF SEES THE FUTURE OF THE LIBERAL PARTY IN LAURIER
  • LAURIER IS PICKED TO REPLACE THE AGING AND NOW THE TWICE DEFEATED EDWARD BLAKE AND ASSUMES THE MANTLE OF LEADERSHIP IN 1887
macdonald s reign
MACDONALD’S REIGN
  • MACDONALD FACES MANY PROBLEMS THIS TIME
  • THE ECONOMY IS STILL SLOW SO HE BEGINS TO CONSIDER LETTING GO OF THE NATIONAL POLICY IN FAVOUR OF FREE TRADE
  • HOWEVER THE U.S.A. STILL DOESN’T AGREE SO MACDONALD REVERTS BACK TO THE NATIONAL POLICY
1888 the jesuit estates act
1888: THE JESUIT ESTATES ACT
  • JESUITS HAD LARGE LAND GRANTS
  • AFTER THE FALL OF NEW FRANCE THE LAND WAS TAKEN BY THE BRITISH
  • OVER 400,000 DOLLARS WAS TO BE DISTRIBUTED IN VARIOUS MANNERS TO COMPENSATE THE JESUITS
j e a cont
J.E.A. CONT…
  • ONTARIO OPPOSES THIS ACT AND CALL FOR MACDONALD TO DISALLOW IT
  • MACDONALD DID NOT WANT TO FURTHER ANTAGONIZE QUE AND ROMAN CATHOLICS SO IN THE END HE ALLOWED THE ACT TO STAND
j e a effects
J.E.A. EFFECTS
  • ONTAIRO:
    • ANGRY WITH MACDONALD FOR LETTING THE ACT PASS
  • QUEBEC:
    • SEES THAT IT HAS NO FRIENDS IN ONT. OR FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
    • THIS REKINDLES THE DEMAND FOR A DISTINCT SOCIETY
macdonald s reign cont
MACDONALD’S REIGN CONT…
  • OTHER THAN THESE HURDLES (RECIPROCITY FAILURE AND JESUIT ESTATES ACT) LITTLE HAPPENS IN 1887-1891
  • THERE IS THE MANITOBA SCHOOL’S ACT, BUT IT HOLDS LITTLE SWAY IN THE 1892 ELECTION
1891 election
1891 ELECTION
  • LIBERALS HAVE NEW LEADER, SO THERE WILL BE A REAL ELECTION FOR THE FIRST TIME BETWEEN TWO UNIFIED POLITICAL PARTIES.
  • WHILE LIBS WIN IN QUE, THEY FAIL TO UNIFY THE COUNTRY AGAINST MACDONALD
1891 cont
1891 CONT…
  • BY THIS TIME MACDONALD HAS BEEN IN POWER SINCE 1878 A PERIOD OF 13 YEARS. BEFORE THAT HE WAS IN POWER FROM 1867-1873
  • MACDONALD WAS 75 YEARS OLD, AND CAMPAIGNED ON THE SLOGAN THE OLD MAN, THE OLD FLAG, AND THE OLD POLICY
platforms
PLATFORMS
  • LAURIER HAD ESPOUSED CLOSER TIES TO U.S.A. AND FREE TRADE.
  • MACDONALD SAID CLOSER TIES MEANT ANNEXATION SO PLAYED THE LOYALTY TO BRITAIN AND FEAR OF U.S.A. CARD
  • HE EQUATED LAURIER TO SOMEONE WHO WOULD SELL OUT THE INTERESTS OF THE NATION TO THE AMERICANS
1891 results
1891 RESULTS
  • IN END CONSERVATIVES WIN 123-92
  • LAURIER LEARNED A VALUABLE LESSON THAT DAY:
    • NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE POWER OF THE LOBBY OF BIG BUSINESS
    • AND THAT THE COUNTRY WAS STILL LEARY OF MOVING TOWARD THE USA
macdonald passes
MACDONALD PASSES
  • MACDONALD SERVES LITTLE OF HIS MANDATE
  • HE IS OLD AND THE CAMPAIGN WORE HIM OUT
  • WITHIN WEEKS OF HIS VICTORY HE SUFFERS A SERIES OF STROKES
  • HE DIES 3 MONTHS AFTER ELECTION
conservative leadership
CONSERVATIVE LEADERSHIP?
  • WHO TO LEAD?
  • D’ALTON MCCARTHY?
    • NOPE- TOO CONTROVERSIAL
  • JOHN THOMPSON?
    • NOPE- TOO CATHOLIC
  • JOHN ABBOTT?
    • SURE, WHY NOT?
john abbott 1891 1892
JOHN ABBOTT: 1891-1892
  • HE IS A SENATOR SO COULD NOT EVEN ENTER THE HOUSE
  • HIS ADMINISTRATION WAS ONLY TEMPORARY, AND HE REALLY DID NOT WANT THE JOB
  • ABBOTT HIMSELF STATED THAT THE ONLY REASON HE WAS HERE WAS BECAUSE HE WAS PARTICULARLY OBNOXIOUS TO NO ONE
john abbott cont
JOHN ABBOTT CONT…
  • WHILE PM FOR ONLY 17 MONTHS HE DID REFORM THE CIVIL SERVICE MAKING IT A MORE PROFESSIONAL GROUP WITH LESS PATRONAGE
  • HE WAS LESS SUCCESSFUL BRIDGING THE GAP OVER THE MANITOBA SCHOOLS QUESTION
  • HIS ABILITY CAN BEST BE SUMMED UP BY THE FACT THAT DURING HIS SHORT REIGN THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY WON 42 OF 52 BYE ELECTIONS
john thompson 1892 1894
JOHN THOMPSON: 1892-1894
  • WITHIN A YEAR AND A HALF ABBOTT HAD RESIGNED CITING ILL HEALTH IN 1892
  • AT THIS POINT THE CONSERVATIVES STILL HAVE NO ONE, SO THEY GO TO THOMPSON DESPITE HIS CATHOLICISM
  • THOMPSON HAD REALLY BEEN RUNNING THE SHOW SINCE 1891 ANYWAY, SO THEY GAVE HIM THE MANTLE OF PM
thompson cont
THOMPSON CONT…
  • HE WAS ONLY 47 AND WAS FIRST MARITIMER TO BE PM
  • FROM HALIFAX THOMPSON HAD BEEN A FORMER SUPREME COURT JUDGE AND WAS HAND PICKED BY MACDONALD TO BE CABINET MINISTER
  • HE PASSED THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA ACT ESTABLISHING FOR THE FIRST TIME A CODIFIED SYSTEM OF LAWS IN THE COUNTRY
mackenzie bowell 1894 1896
MACKENZIE BOWELL: 1894-1896
  • THOMSON DIES OF A HEART ATTACK WHILE BEING KNIGHTED IN ENGLAND
  • NOW WHO WILL BE PM?
  • G.G. WANTED BOWELL, BUT HE WAS A SENATOR
  • CONSERVATIVES WANTED TUPPER
  • BOWELL WAS CHOSEN
the bowell movement
THE BOWELL MOVEMENT
  • BECAUSE HE WAS FROM THE SENATE, AND NOT THE CHOICE OF THE PARTY HIS LEADERSHIP WAS NEVER SUPPORTED
  • WHEN THAT HAPPENS YOUR LEADERSHIP CANNOT SURVIVE
  • IN FACT HIS CABINET REVOLTED OVER THE MANITOBA SCHOOLS QUESTION
  • BOWELL WAS OUSTED IN 1896
charles tupper 1896
CHARLES TUPPER: 1896
  • 1896 SIR CHARLES TUPPER RETURNS FROM LONDON POSTING TO ASSUME ROLE OF PM
  • HE IS FATHER OF CONFEDERATION AND MARITIMER BUT OLD AND WITH NO TIME TO PREPARE BEFORE THE ELECTION IN 1896
  • IN FACT TUPPER SERVES AS PM FOR ONLY 10 WEEKS THE SHORTEST TERM IN HISTORY
1896 elections
1896 ELECTIONS
  • AS THE 1896 ELECTION COMES ABOUT, THE CONSERVATIVES HAVE GONE THROUGH 5 LEADERS IN 5 YEARS
  • NO LONGER CAN THEY BE CALLED A UNITED PARTY, NOR CAN THEY CALL ON LOYALTY TO THEIR FOUNDER
  • BY NOW LAURIER HAS UNITED THE LIBERALS
laurier wins
LAURIER WINS!
  • IN END THE LIBERALS GET THEIR FIRST ELECTION VICTORY SINCE MACKENZIE’S OF 1874
  • NOW WILFRID LAURIER TAKES OVER THE REINS OF THE PRIME MINISTER’S OFFICE
  • LAURIER’S FIRST TEST WILL BE THE MANITOBA SCHOOLS QUESTION