Farm and Field Investigation and Case Management Tools VDPAM 310 Dr. Locke Karriker, DVM Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine
Objectives • Decrease anxiety • Increase proficiency • Positive experiences early • Get past learning the ‘process’ and on to learning the medicine
Attitude • Teamwork • Investigative • Professionally (and politely) skeptical • Simplify • Prioritize • Confidence
Table of Contents • Objectives • Overview • Specific tools • Preparation for visit • Meeting the “manager” • Facility evaluation • Documentation
Table of Contents Start as discrete tedious steps but become compressed and abbreviated with clinical experience and familiarity with client • Objectives • Overview of the process • Preparation for visit • Meeting the “manager” • Facility evaluation • Documentation
When you get to clinical courses:Review the syllabus first!! • The syllabus describes course expectations that are relevant to farm visits. • Note emphasis on confidentiality of information, limitations on video and audio capture, and conduct expectations. • The WebCt module has examples (generated by your classmates in previous rotations) of the product that you will generate with your visit: • a PPT presentation of case to the class and instructors • a case report • a client communication letter
Preparation….Step 1 • Review background material (if available) • Size of farm • Type of production system • Major concern • Previous diagnostic reports
Preparation….Step 2 • Contact the farm manager • Schedule time for farm visit • Elicit directions to the farm • Discuss biosecurity protocols for the farm • # of visitors in group, required clothing, shower facilities, downtime requirements • Chief complaint/concern
Preparation….Step 3 • Contact the veterinarian associated with the farm • Availability during scheduled farm visit • Dissemination of results/reports • Ask for expansion on case details
Preparation….Step 4 • Research clients chief concern • Useful resources: • Pork gateway (hyperlink) • Swine Disease Manual (hyperlink) • Record benchmarks (hyperlink) • The pig site (hyperlink) • AASV Information CD (hyperlink)
Preparation….Step 5 • Develop a “game plan” • Locate supplies needed • Boots, coveralls, bleeding supplies (including sharps container), necropsy kit, camera (disinfect, charge battery, download previous pictures), garbage bag for dirty equipment, clean transportation, +/- ventilation equipment • Generate a check-off list of information to gather • Print off production benchmarks
Meeting the “manager” • Introductions • Define what position the contact holds (site manager, field manager, hourly employee, contract operator, owner, etc.) • Define students role in the investigation • Structure of meeting • Outline visit structure and report timeline • Outline “manager” objectives • Outline how pigs are marketed (negotiated vs contracted)
Meeting the “manager” • Go over production records, diagnostic reports, pigflow • Diagram the layout of the farm • Detail pig flow (source, number, facilities, biosecurity, etc.) • Historical disease concerns (ex. PRRSV, Circovirus, previous respiratory outbreaks, etc.) • List any abnormalities or trends (detailed list) • List “manager” concerns • List things to look for/check during the walk through • Take pictures of record boards if necessary
Facility evaluation - outside • Assess cleanliness/maintenance of facilities • Weeds, junk, equipment, feed spills, ventilation fans, feed bins, etc. • Assess biosecurity of the site • Fence, signs, visitor log, parking designation, entrance protocols, security of facility entrances
Facility evaluation - outside • Assess rodent/insect infestation and control measures More information: NPB rodent control, NPB rodent control 2
Facility evaluation - outside • Feed storage • Well maintained bins, periodically cleaned, no moldy feed present, no feed spills present, feed is available, etc.
Facility evaluation - inside • Evaluate feed, water and air • Quality of feed, availability, maintenance of delivery equipment • Type of watering system, functionality • General comfort of air quality (high odor, stuffiness, noticeable drafts at animal level)
Facility evaluation - inside • Evaluate environment • Assess stocking density (standards) • Appropriate temperatures for production stage
Facility evaluation - inside • Assess biosecurity • Boot baths, hoses, boot change, etc. • Assess overall cleanliness of facility • Manure removed from aisles, AI supplies or other trash thrown away, medicine properly stored after use • How are facilities cleaned between groups • Cleanliness of pigs
Facility evaluation - inside • Assess presence of noticeable hazards to the pigs • Sharp edges, exposed wires, protruding gate rods, etc. • Assess equipment • Teeth clippers, scalpel blades, etc. • Working order, cleanliness
Facility evaluation - inside • Pharmaceutical storage area • Are products well labeled? • Are directions for use posted? • Are open bottles dated and refrigerated? • Any expired antibiotics/vaccines present? • Any illegal or extra-label products present? • Are products for human consumption stored in the same place? • Is the refrigerator at an appropriate temperature? • Is there an appropriate sharps container?
Facility evaluation - Personnel • While inspecting the facility, evaluate the manager and/or employees capabilities • Knowledge of protocols • Training • Knowledge of equipment (ventilation system especially) • How well does employee information match what you see
Facility evaluation - Personnel • “Show me how” versus “Explain how” • Open ended questions – NOT “yes/no”
Facility evaluation - Pigs • Assess sick pens and pulling “accuracy” • How many sick pigs/pen are present (pigs that should have been pulled prior to visit) • How many pigs/pen pulled daily • Are pigs treated when they are pulled • Is supplemental feeding utilized • Note abnormal characteristics • Rough hair, gaunt pigs, tail biting, thumpers, skin lesions, joint problems, neurologic signs, etc.
Facility evaluation - Pigs • Diagnostic testing • Collect blood samples • Perform necropsies on mortalities – assess trends • Find acute clinical pigs for dx work
Follow-up • Summarize findings and generate report • Submit report to both producer and owner/veterinarian
More barrows died than gilts for every cause except: Heat Stroke/Stress, Ileitis, and Fighting
Relative Risk • Risk in the exposed group versus the risk in the unexposed group: RR = (a/a+b)/(c/c+d) Introduction to Veterinary Epidemiology, Houe et al Chapter 7 Measures of Association and Effect p.95
Relationship of lung lesions to hyperkeratosis or ulcers** Relative Risk Pigs with any lung lesion were 2.23 times as likely to have an ulcer or hyperkeratosis as pigs that did not have any lung lesions. **LUNG EDEMA PIGS WERE EXCLUDED REGARDLESS OF ULCER STATUS
PCV2 Associated Finisher Mortality October 1, 2005
Data represents cumulative mortality by week of placement for an average of 67,814 pigs placed per week (a total of 12,681,394 pigs on the graph) through peak of outbreak in southeastern U.S.
Mature gilts in acclimation barn Very little coughing Very lethargic Anorexic No coughing No vomiting Many with fevers
Diagnostic Results • 30/30 sows positive for PRRS on ELISA • 0/30 sows positive for TGEv on differential ELISA, no piglet tissues positive • 22/30 sows positive for PRCV • 24/24 gilt nasal swabs positive for influenza – H3 strain