Lab tools and Scientific Investigation Earth Science Unit 1: Scientific Investigation
Main Lab Toolsthat you must be familiar with include: beaker, graduated cylinder, test tube, test tube tongs, meter stick, balance/scale, goggles, and Erlenmeyer flask
Beakers • Used for holding, mixing and sometimes measuring chemicals • Unit used: milliliter (mL)
Graduated cylinder • Used for measuring the volume of liquids. • Very precise measurements • Unit used: mL
Test tube • A finger-like length of glass, open a the top and usually a rounded U-shaped bottom. • Sometimes used for boiling liquids
tongs • Use the test tube tongs to hold the test tube while heating liquids.
Meter stick • A meter long stick or ruler • Marked off in centimeters • Used for measuring the length of objects
Triple beam balance • An scale used to find or measure the mass in objects • Unit of measure is grams
goggles • Always wear goggles when working with liquids—even water. • Goggles protect eyes from chemicals and solids that may be a result of a lab or someone horse playing.
Erlenmeyer flask • Used for holding, mixing, and heating chemicals • Hard to tip over • Unit: mL
wafting • a safe way to identify an unknown chemical. • bring the container towards your chin, while gently swirling the liquid around • wave the fumes slowly towards your nose. • Breathe normally. • NEVER stick your nose into a container of an unknown chemical!!! Nose, lung, throat or eye damage could result.
4-question strategy • What materials are available to conduct experiments? • How does _____ act? • How can I change ______ to affect the action? (IV) • How can I measure the response of __________ to show change. (DV)
hypothesis • A prediction about the outcome of an experiment. • If/then • If=independent variable • Then=dependent variable
Independent variable • The onefactor scientists change during an experiment.
Dependent variable • The factor that changes as a result of the independent variable in an experiment. • The measurement of the growth of the plant is the dependent variable.
constants • The part of the experiment that is kept exactly the same during each of the repeated trials of an investigation.
conclusion • What was the purpose of the experiment? • Did the data support your hypothesis? • Why do you think you got these results? • What might you change next time?