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Sound Wave Properties. Sound. Sound is a longitudinal (Mechanical)wave caused by a vibrating object Molecules collide , producing sound Examples: Vocal chords , guitar or piano strings, tuning fork, etc. Longitudinal Wave. Referred to as a PRESSURE WAVE

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sound
Sound
  • Sound is a longitudinal(Mechanical)wave caused by a vibrating object
  • Molecules collide, producing sound
  • Examples: Vocal chords, guitar or piano strings, tuning fork, etc.
longitudinal wave
Longitudinal Wave
  • Referred to as a PRESSURE WAVE
  • A sound wave has high pressure and low pressure regions moving through a medium
  • The high pressure regions are called compressions, molecules are compressed
  • The low pressure regions are called rarefactions, molecules are spread out
frequency
Frequency
  • The frequency of a sound wave (or any wave) is the number of complete vibrations per second.
  • The frequency of sound determines its pitch
  • The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch
  • The lower the frequency, the lower the pitch
wavelength
Wavelength
  • Wavelength is the distance between two high pressures or two low pressures
  • Wavelength and frequency are inversely related
  • A short wavelength (high frequency) results in a high pitch
  • http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/sound
what we have learned
What we have learned:
  • Sound is a longitudinal wave.
  • Sound requires a medium.
  • Sound travels fastest in solids, slowest in gases.
  • Wavelength and frequency are inversely related.
  • As the frequency of a wave increases, the pitch increases. As the frequency of a wave decreases, the pitch decreases.
frequency and the human ear
Frequency and the human ear
  • Humans can hear a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
  • The older you get, the hearing range shrinks
  • Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz are called infrasonic
  • Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz are called ultrasonic
hearing range frequencies
Hearing Range Frequencies
  • http://www.movingsoundtech.com/
  • http://www.noiseaddicts.com/2009/03/can-you-hear-this-hearing-test/
amplitude
Amplitude
  • The human ear is sensitive to difference in pressure waves
  • The AMPLITUDE of a sound wave determines it’s loudness or softness
  • This means the more energy in a sound wave, the louder the sound
  • Sound intensity is a measure of how much energy passes a given point in a time period
  • Intensity is measured in decibels
decibel
DECIBEL
  • Every increase of 10 dB has a 10x greater amplitude
  • Most people perceive an increase of 10 dB to be about twice as loud as the original sound
reducing sound intensity
Reducing Sound Intensity
  • Cotton earplugs reduce sound intensity by approximately 10 dB.
  • Special earplugs reduce intensity by 25 to 45 dB.
  • Sound proof materials weakens the pressure fluctuations either by absorbing or reflecting the sound waves.
  • When the sound waves are absorbed by soft materials, the energy is converted into thermal energy.
sound behaviors reflection
Sound Behaviors: Reflection
  • Reflection of sound results in an echo
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAYt-lf4AWk
  • Sound waves leave a source, travel a distance, and bounce back to the origin
  • Animals, like bats, uses echoes to locate prey
  • Other uses include determining distance between objects, echocardiograms
  • The distance the sound travels to get back to the origin is 2x the distance between the sound source and boundary
sound behavior refraction
Sound Behavior: Refraction
  • Refraction occurs when sound moves from one medium to another
  • The wave bends, and the speed changes
  • Even when sound moves from warmer areas to cooler areas, refraction occurs
sound behavior diffraction
Sound Behavior: Diffraction
  • Diffraction occurs when sound waves pass through an opening or through a barrier
  • Low pitched sound waves travel farther than high pitched sound waves
  • Animals use diffraction for communication
  • http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/animals/mammals-animals/elephants/elephant_african_vocalization/
velocity
Velocity
  • Velocity of sound depends on the medium it travels through and the phase of the medium
  • Sound travels faster in liquids than in air (4 times faster in water than air)
  • Sound travels faster in solids than in liquids (11 times faster in iron than in air)
  • Sound does not travel through a vacuum (there is no air so sound has no medium)
velocity and temperature
Velocity and Temperature
  • In air at room temperature, sound travels at 343 m/s (at 20°C). This is about 766 mph.
  • As temperature increases, the velocity of sound increases

v= velocity of sound in air

T=temperature of air in °C

v=331 + (0.6)T

example problems
Example Problems:
  • Sound waves travel at approximately 340 m/s. What is the wavelength of a sound wave with a frequency of 20 Hz?
  • What is the speed of sound traveling in air at 20º C?
  • If the above sound wave has a frequency of 261.6 Hz, what is the wavelength of the wave?
what is the doppler effect
What is the Doppler Effect?
  • http://molebash.com/doppler/home.htm
doppler effect
Doppler Effect
  • Sound waves move out in all directions
definition
Definition
  • The Doppler effect is a change in the apparent (or observed) frequency due to the motion of the source or the receiver
  • Example: As an ambulance with sirens approaches, the pitch seems high. As the ambulance moves by the pitch lowers.
doppler effect1
Doppler Effect
  • As the wave travels outward, the front of the wave bunches up, producing a shorter wavelength
  • We hear a higher

frequency

slide27

The back of the wave spreads out, producing a longer wavelength

  • We hear a lower frequency
  • http://www.sounddogs.com/searchresults.asp?Keyword=Doppler
slide28

Observer A hears a low pitch (lower frequency)

  • Observer B hears the correct pitch (no change in frequency)
  • Observer C hears a high pitch (high frequency)
slide29
When the source goes faster, the wave fronts in the front of the source start to bunch up closer and closer together, until...
the object actually starts to go faster than the speed of sound a sonic boom is then created
The object actually starts to go faster than the speed of sound. A sonic boom is then created.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWGLAAYdbbc

uses of the doppler effect
Uses of the Doppler Effect
  • Police use Doppler to measure your speed with radar
    • A frequency is sent out with a radar gun
    • The sound wave hits your car and bounces back to the police car
    • Speed can be determined based on the frequency changes received
  • Radar can be used to determine the speed of baseballs
  • Astronomers can determine the distance to other galaxies
  • Bats use Doppler to locate prey
    • If the bat is catching the prey, the frequency is high
    • If the prey is moving away from the bat, the frequency is low
doppler equation
Doppler Equation

If the sound source and the observer are moving toward each other:

fo= frequency heard by the observer

fs = frequency from the source

v= velocity of the sound wave

vo = velocity of the observer

vs= velocity of the sound source

doppler equation1
Doppler Equation

If the sound source and the observer are moving away from each other:

fo= frequency heard by the observer

fs = frequency from the source

v= velocity of the sound wave

vo = velocity of the observer

vs= velocity of the sound source

example
Example
  • Sitting on the beach at Coney Island one afternoon, Sunny finds herself beneath the flight path of the airplanes leaving Kennedy Airport. What frequency will Sunny hear as a jet, whose engines emit sound at a frequency of 1000 Hz flies toward her at a speed of 100 m/s?
example1
Example

A trumpet player plays a C note of 524 Hz while traveling in a convertible at 24.6 m/s. If the car is coming toward you, what frequency should you hear? Assume the temperature is 20°C.

natural frequency
Natural Frequency
  • Nearly all objects when hit or disturbed will vibrate.
  • Each object vibrates at a particular frequency or set of frequencies.
  • This frequency is called the natural frequency.
  • If the amplitude is large enough and if the natural frequency is within the range of 20-20000 Hz, then the object will produce an audible sound.
factors affecting natural frequency
Factors Affecting Natural Frequency
  • Properties of the medium
  • Modification in the wavelength that is produced (length of string, column of air in instrument, etc.)
  • Temperature of the air
timbre
Timbre
  • Timbre is the quality of the sound that is produced.
  • If a single frequency is produced, the tone is pure (example: a flute)
  • If a set of frequencies is produced, but related mathematically by whole-number ratios, it produces a richer tone (example: a tuba)
  • If multiple frequencies are produced that are not related mathematically, the sound produced is described as noise (example: a pencil)
resonance1
Resonance
  • Resonance occurs when one object vibrates at the same natural frequency of a second object, forcing that second object to vibrate at the same frequency.
  • Resonance Demo
tacoma narrows bridge
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmxHxPYc1qc
types of resonance
Types of Resonance
  • Resonance is the cause of sound production in musical instruments.
  • Energy is transferred thereby increasing the amplitude (volume) of the sound.
  • Resonance takes place in both closed pipe resonators and open pipe resonators.
  • Resonance is achieved when there is a standing wave produced in the tube.
closed pipe resonator
Closed pipe resonator
  • open end of tube is anti-node
  • closed end of tube is node
harmonics of closed pipe resonance
Harmonics of Closed Pipe Resonance
  • The shortest column of air that can have an anti-node at ONE end and a node at the OTHER ENDis ¼ wavelength long.
  • This is called the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. (Lowest possible frequency of any object)
  • Resonance occurs every ½ wavelength intervals.
  • The frequency that corresponds to ¾ wavelength is called the 3rd harmonic, 5/4 wavelength is called the 5th harmonic, etc.
open pipe resonator
Open pipe resonator
  • both ends are open
  • both ends are anti-node
harmonics of open pipe resonance
Harmonics of Open Pipe Resonance
  • The shortest column of air that can have nodes (or antinodes) at both ends is ½ wavelength long. This is called the fundamental frequency or first harmonic.
  • As the frequency is increased, additional resonance lengths are found at ½ wavelength intervals.
  • The frequency that corresponds to a full wavelength is the second harmonic, 3/2 wavelength is the third harmonic, etc.
problem
Problem

1. Tommy and the Test Tubes have a concert this weekend. The lead instrumentalist uses a test tube (closed end air column) with a 17.2 cm air column. The speed of sound in the test tube is 340 m/s. Find the frequency of the first harmonic played by this instrument.

solution
Solution

L = λ/4

4 x L = λ

4 x .172 = .688 m

v = f λ

340 = f (.688)

f = 494 Hz

problems
Problems

2. Matt is playing a toy flute, causing resonating waves in a open-end air column. The speed of sound through the air column is 336 m/s. The length of the air column is 30.0 cm. Calculate the frequency of the first, second, and third harmonics.

solution1
Solution
  • L = λ/2

2 x L = λ

2 x .30 = .60 m

v = f λ

336 = f (.60)

f = 560 Hz. (first harmonic)

2nd harmonic = 560 + 560 = 1120 Hz.

3rd harmonic = 1120 + 560 = 1680 Hz

musical beats and intervals
Musical Beats and Intervals
  • Music consists of multiple frequencies being played at the same time
  • Resonance occurs and sound is heard at the antinodes
  • Atlanta Symphony
  • Any two sounds whose frequencies result in a 2:1 ratio are said to be separated by an octave and result in a pleasing sound
beats
Beats
  • A beat occurs when two sound waves of very similar frequencies interfere with one another
beats1
Beats
  • The beat frequency is always equal to the difference in frequency of the two notes that interfere to produce the beats
  • If two sound waves with frequencies of 256 Hz and 254 Hz are played simultaneously, a beat frequency of 2 Hz will be detected
sound and hearing
Sound and Hearing
  • Acoustics is the branch of physics pertaining to sound
  • The ear converts sound energy to mechanical energy to a nerve impulse that is then transmitted to the brain
  • Our ears allow us to perceive changes in pitch
  • Our ears are sensitive to a particular range of frequencies between 1,000 – 4,000 Hz.
the outer ear
The Outer Ear
  • The outer ear consists of the earlobe and the ear canal
  • Sound enters the outer ear as a pressure wave
  • The outer ear provides protection to the middle ear and protects the eardrum
the middle ear
The Middle Ear
  • The middle ear is an air-filled cavity that consists of an eardrum and three tiny, interconnected bones - the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
  • The eardrum is a very durable and tightly stretched membrane that vibrates as the incoming pressure waves reach
  • The stirrup is connected to the inner ear
slide60
The sound waves will then vibrate the Tympanic Membrane(eardrum)which is made of a thin layer of skin.
slide61
The tympanic membrane will then vibrate three tiny bones: theMalleus (hammer),theIncus (anvil),and theStapes (stirrup)
the inner ear
The Inner Ear
  • The inner ear consists of a cochlea, the semicircular canals, and the auditory nerve
  • The cochlea and the semicircular canals are filled with a water-like fluid
  • The fluid and nerve cells of the semicircular canals provide no role in the task of hearing; they speed up the detection of sound
inside look of the cochlea
Inside look of the Cochlea
  • The stapes vibrates the cochlea
  • The frequency of the vibrations will stimulate particular hairs inside the cochlea
  • The intensity at which these little hairs are vibrated will determine how loud the sound is.
  • The auditory nerve will then send this signal to the brain.

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