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Remote Sensing Meteorological Satellites Applied to Earth Surface Observation. Meteorological Satellites (Metsats). Coarse spatial resolution, high temporal resolution NOAA, GOES, and DMSP NIMBUS EOS, OrbView-2, SPOT-4. 1. AVHRR. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer 1979 –

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meteorological satellites metsats
Meteorological Satellites (Metsats)
  • Coarse spatial resolution, high temporal resolution
  • NOAA, GOES, and DMSP
  • NIMBUS
  • EOS, OrbView-2, SPOT-4
1 avhrr
1. AVHRR
  • Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
  • 1979 –
  • Designed as weather sensors on NOAA satellites
  • Become increasingly popular for land oriented applications

http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/spacebrn.htm

avhrr orbits
AVHRR Orbits
  • Sun-synchronous
  • Inclination 98.9o
  • 833km altitude
  • Swath 2400km cross track
slide6
June 26, 2000 covers European Russian eastward into Siberia.

East Coast on September 27, 1997:

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_6.html

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_6.html

spectral resolution
Spectral Resolution
  •   - band1: 0.58-0.68microm (red)   - band2: 0.72-1.10microm (near infrared)   - band3: 3.55-3.93microm (mid infrared- thermal)   - band4: 10.30-11.3microm (thermal)*   - band5: 11.50-12.5microm (thermal)*
resolutions
Resolutions
  • 10 bits, 1024 levels of brightness
  • Spatial resolution

- 1.1km Local Area Coverage (LAC) - 4 km global Area Coverage (GAC)

  • Temporal resolution: daily                  
slide9
Data
  • Low cost
  • Public domain distributed by NOAA
vegetation indices
Vegetation Indices
  • Vegetation Index (VI):         NIR-Red
  • Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)         NDVI = (NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red)
ndvi avhrr
NDVI AVHRR

http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/gimms/

ndvi modis
NDVI MODIS

https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/modis_products_table/mod13c2

ndvi spot
NDVI SPOT

http://www.spot-vegetation.com/pages/policy.html

vegetation index
Vegetation Index

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect3/Sect3_4.html

2 goes
   2. GOES
  • Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites
  • As part of global network of metsats 70o longitude apart around the world, domestic data available since 1975
  • Geosynchronous, altitude 36,000km
  • GOES East 75oW, GOES-West 135oW
goes east 75 o w
GOES East 75oW

http://www.goes.noaa.gov/ECIR4.html

goes west 135 o w
GOES-West 135oW

http://www.goes.noaa.gov/WCIR4.html

slide19
GOES ..
  • A full disk view
  • A visible (day time) 0.55-0.70microm  4 thermal band (day and night) 3.8-12.5microm
  • 1km spatial resolution for the visible band, and 4,8,4,4km for the four thermal bands, respectively
  • Data are distributed real time
slide20
GOES

View of South America

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_7.html

3 dmsp
3. DMSP
  • Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
  • Data were available to civilian users since 1973

http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/dmsp.htm

3 dmsp1
3. DMSP
  •  Sun-synchronous
  • 0.4-1.1microm (visible & NIR), 8-13microm (thermal)
  • A nighttime visible band, the population map,  volcanoes, oil and gas fields, and forest fires
  • 3km spatial resolution
4 ocean monitoring satellites
4. Ocean Monitoring Satellites
  • Nimbus-7, 1978 – 1986
  • Carry Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)
  • Swath 1566km

Thermal

Visible

The Gulf of Mexico

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_4.html

4 nimbus
4. NIMBUS
  • 825m spatial resolution
  • 6 bands  - visible bands: phytoplankton concentration, suspended silt  - NIR: surface vegetation, land/water boundary - thermal: sea surface temperature
slide34
Color-coded temperature maps

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect14/Sect14_4.html

5 earth observing system eos
5. Earth Observing System (EOS)
  • Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) formally called Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) NASA program
  •    Terra (EOS-AM), 1999    Aqua (EOS-PM), 2002
terra
Terra

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_7.html

five sensors on board terra
Five Sensors on Board Terra
  • MODIS

- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer

  • ASTER

- Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer

  • CERES

- Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System

  • MISR

- Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer

  • MOPITT

- Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere

modis
MODIS

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_7.html

  • MODIS, a highly improved successor to AVHRR
  • Launched in 1999  
  • Greater spatial resolution, 250, 500, and 1000m
  • 36 bands between 0.405-14.385mm
  • 4096 radiometric resolution
  • 2-day interval
modis bands
MODIS Bands
  • Bands 1-2

0.62-0.876mm, 250m, Land/clouds boundaries

  • Bands 3-7

0.459-2.155mm, 500m, Land/cloud properties

  • Bands 8-16

0.405-0.877mm, 1000m, Ocean color /phytoplankton/biogeochemistry

  • Bands 17-19

0.890-0.965mm, 1000m, Atmospheric water vapor

modis bands1
MODIS Bands …
  • Bands 20-23

3.660-4.080mm, 1000m, Surface/cloud temperature

  • Bands 24-25

4.433-4.549mm, 1000m, Atmospheric temperature

  • Band 26

1.360-1.390mm, 1000m, Cirrus clouds

  • Bands 27-29

6.538-8.700mm, 1000m, Water vapor

modis bands2
MODIS Bands …
  • Band 30

9.580-9.880mm, 1000m, Ozone

  • Bands 31-32

10.780-12.270mm, 1000m, Surface/cloud temperature

  • Bands 33-36

13.185-14.385mm, 1000m, Cloud top altitude

slide42
A MODIS oblique view

One of the important EOS joint study programs is the Indian Ocean Experiment.

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_9.html

modis1
MODIS

Atmospheric appearance of aerosols, much being the result of pollution

Water vapor, even when heavy clouds are absent or dispersed

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_9.html

modis2
MODIS

The chlorophyll content

The fluorescent properties of the ocean, which relate to plankton content.

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_9.html

aster
ASTER
  • Collaboration between US and Japan
  • Consists of three instrument systems   VNIR: visible and NIR               

SWIR: short wave infrared   TIR: thermal infrared

  • 60km swath

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_7.html

aster1
ASTER
  • VNIR: visible and NIR

G, R, NIR, NIR; 15m, 8bits               

  • SWIR: short wave infrared

5 bands in MIR; 30m, 8bits

  • TIR: thermal infrared

5 bands in thermal; 90m, 12bits

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_7.html

aster2
ASTER

Volcanoes in the Andes mountain chain of South America

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Intro/Part2_26.html

slide48
Multispectral imaging contributions to global land ice measurements from space

Examples of ASTER RGB false-color composites draped over ASTER DTMs. (A) Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. The scene covers approximately 25 x 25 km (B) Llewellyn Glacier, British Columbia. Scale is ∼13 km across the middle of the image and 25 km from bottom (foreground) to top (background). 15m resolution.

Kargel, J. S. and 16 others (2005) Multispectral Imaging contributions to Global Land Ice Measurements from Space, Special Issue on Terra/ ASTER Science. Remote Sensing of Environment 99, 187-219

mapping alluvial gully erosion in australia tropical rivers
Mapping alluvial gully erosion in Australia tropical rivers

Knight, J., Spencer, J. Brooks, A. & Phinn, S.   “Large-Area, High-Resolution Remote Sensing Based Mapping of Alluvial Gully Erosion in Australia’s Tropical Rivers”. Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference Proceedings, Albury, NSW May 2007

slide50
Aqua

http://aqua.nasa.gov/

slide51
Aqua
  • Complement Terra observations by providing data later in the day
  • Launched in 2002
  • Designed to obtain information of weather and ocean
  • 6 instruments on board including MODIS
six sensors on board aqua
Six Sensors on Board Aqua
  • MODIS
  • CERES
  • AMSR/E

- Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS

  • AMSU

- Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

  • AIRS

- Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

  • HSB

- Humidity Sounder for Brazil

slide53
Aqua

Improved sea surface and brightness temperatures on June 2-4

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_10a.html

slide54
Aqua

Sea surface temperature in hurricane alley. This false color composite image is made using data taken by AMSR-E on board EOS, May 2002.

6 seawifs
6. SeaWiFS
  • Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor
  • NASA contracted with Orbital Science Corp. launched on OrbView-2
  • Designed to study ocean biogeochemistry

http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/orbview2.htm

6 seawifs1
6. SeaWiFS
  • 8 bands between 0.402-0.885mm
  • 1.1km spatial resolution
  • 2800km swath

Chlorphyll concentrations (in red, yellow, and orange colors) on a near global scale during September, 1997.

http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Intro/Part2_26.html

7 spot 4
7. SPOT 4
  • Launched on Mar 23, 1998
  • High Resolution Visible and Infrared (HRVIR)
  • An additional mid-infrared 1.58-1.75mm for vegetation, mineral, and soil moisture monitoring
  • Replace the pan band with a red band that produces both 10m black/white and 20m XS data
  • A wide IFOV Vegetation Monitoring Instrument with 1km resolution, 2250km swath, B, R, NIR, MIR bands
readings
Readings
  • Chapter 6
slide59
3-D atmospheric maps developed from multisensor observations such as the above three data sets. Here is the western Mediterranean (France on left and North Africa on right) with the bottom shown as a landscape image, and atmospheric layers at 8 and 12 km shown in colors with red the warmest and purples coolest. http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/Sect16_10a.html
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