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Crisis and Disaster Management Plan in Hydro Power Sector Manoj Tripathi Director Hydro Projects Monitoring CEA
Outline of Presentation • Crisis / Disaster Management • Recent major Disasters in hydro power projects / stations • Possible Solutions for mitigating effects of disasters • Facilities required to tackle crisis / disaster situations • Conclusion
Disaster –Definition as per DM Act, 2005 “Disaster" means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area
Disaster Management “Disaster Management" means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for- (i) prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; (ii) mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences; (iii) capacity-building; (iv) preparedness to deal with any disaster; (v) prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster; (vi) assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; (vii) evacuation, rescue and relief; (viii) rehabilitation and reconstruction;
Crisis Management • Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. • Three elements are common to most definitions of crisis: (a) a threat to the organization, (b) the element of surprise, and (c) a short decision time.
Crisis - Types Crisis can be classified into the foll: types: • Natural disaster • Technological crises • Confrontation • Malevolence • Organizational Misdeeds • Workplace Violence • Rumours • Terrorist attacks/man-made disasters
Natural Disaster Natural crises, typically natural disasters considered as 'acts of God,' are such environmental phenomena as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornodoes, hurricanes, floods, landslides, tsunamis, storms etc. that threaten life, property, and the environment itself. Example: Earthquake in Sikkim during the year 2011, Tsunami in the year 2004, Cyclone Aila in Eastern India in the year 2009, Landslides/ Slope failures, flooding of PH, damage to diversion structure/ dam in various HEP’s due to floods etc.
Technological crises • Technological breakdowns or malfuncion of various equipments • Human breakdowns • Example: Software failures, Industrial accidents
Confrontation crisis Confrontation crisis occur when discontented individuals and/or groups fight businesses, government, and various interest groups to win acceptance of their demands and expectations. The common type of confrontation crisis is boycotts, and other types are picketing, sit-ins, ultimatums to those in authority, blockade or occupation of buildings, and resisting or disobeying police.
Sayano-Shushenskaya HEP Accident-Russia (10X640 MW=6400 MW)- Year 2009 The accident was primarily caused by vibrations of turbine № 2 which led to fatigue damage of the mountings of the turbine, including its cover. The report found that at the moment of the accident, the nuts on at least 6 bolts keeping the turbine cover in place were absent. After the accident, 49 found bolts were investigated: 41 had fatigue cracks. On 8 bolts, the fatigue-damaged area exceeded 90% of the total cross-sectional area.
Cyclone Aila- Year 2009 & Sikkim Earthquake- Year 2011 • Cyclone Aila caused destruction in Sikkim/ WB HEP’s. The diversion arrangement of the project was washed away. In Bhutan, the river course of Mangechhu river was filled with debris and the river bed level rose by almost 10-20 m. • The Sikkim earthquake in Sikkim gave a blow to under construction HEP’s in Sikkim mainly Teesta-III HEP.
An Overview of TLD-III (After Floods) Left Bank Diversion Channel -St-II D/S Coffer Dyke Barrage Blocks III-VII Diversion Stage-III Flow Power House Area Intake Area Diversion Stage-I Right Bank
Flash Floods in river Sutlej • Year 2000- Flash flood (discharge 6500 cumecs) with probability of 1 in 61,000 years. Ghanvi PH, which was almost complete got submerged from TRT side. Nathpa Jhakri and Baspa-II HEP’s also witnessed large scale destruction. • Year 2005- Flash floods due to breach of artificial lake on river Parechu. The Hydro Power Stations had to be shut down due to heavy silt.
General Guidelines for HEP’s • Preventive Maintenance checks should be rigorously followed in all Power Stations • Predictive Maintenance equipments like on line vibration/condition monitoring for generator/turbine, on-line monitoring system for transformers etc should be installed • All monitoring and recording tools and equipments should be in working condition.
General Guidelines for HEP’s • Flood warning system shall be established on the upstream of dam/barrage so as to have advance information regarding high inflows ensuring sufficient lead time for taking protective measures • Hourly monitoring of inflows and silt levels (PPM) shall carried out during complete monsoon/high inflows period
General Guidelines for HEP’s • Disaster Management plan for each project/Power station including that related to flood management • Fixed /Portable type public address system and Siren • List of probable sources for emergent supplies, drainage/dewatering pumps including diesel operated pumps, all types of pipes, spares, etc., may be identified in advance and kept readily available.
General Guidelines for HEP’s • System shall be built up for proper liaison with local bodies for sharing information regarding inflows, any blockade in upstream of dam and sudden release of water etc. • Periodical Training programme for the operating personnel on “Flood prevention of Power station”
General Guidelines for HEP’s • Technical audit or project/Power station should be regularly got carried out from an independent team of expert • Requisite number of Earth Moving Equipment e.g. Loader/Excavation and Dumpers etc. should be made available even during O&M stage
Disaster Mitigation- Design Aspects Civil: • Portals to be above HFL • Slope protection/ stabilization • Cloud burst prone area- U/G PH • Proper drainage HM: • Dedicated Gantry with independent gate for each DT • Gate at outfall of TRT. • DG Supply for all gates.
Disaster Mitigation- Design Aspects EM: • Submersible pumps for drainage/ dewatering • Electrical panels/ Battery Hall to be placed above Machine Hall floor • Sufficient DG Capacity • Discharge water above HFL D/S of PH
Disaster Mitigation- Construction Stage Civil: • Plugging of Construction adits as per design • TRT portal to be provided with plug HM/EM: • In case DT installation is not complete then suitable plug/ bulkhead to be provided
Disaster Mitigation- O&M Stage • All preventive maintenance to be carried out as per schedule. • Regular mock drills to be performed • Fire Fighting/ Drainage system should be regularly checked • Discharge data upstream of the project should be regularly monitored • Slope stabilization in steep and vulnerable slopes
FACILITIES REQUIRED TO TACKLE ANY CRISIS/DISASTER • Recovery Equipment and Spares Inventory • Communication Facilities • Transport and Other Arrangements • Financial Resources • Black Start Facilities • De-watering Pumps • Mobile DG sets • Solar Energy Systems and Photovoltaic System • List of Contractors • Emergency Restoration Systems (ERS)
Conclusion A well trained and vigilant organization can handle any crisis /disaster in a better way so all organizations should • Have a Disaster Management Plan • Do all regular Preventive Maintenance checks • Be Vigilant to possible threats • Hold regular mock drills and training programmes • A list of Do’s and Don’ts during Emergency situations to be displayed at key locations