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Disaster and Crisis. Planning and Management. Planning and Preparing. Logistical Planning Federal State City District Staff Students Parents Volunteers Others. Emergency Preparedness. Emergency situations can occur at any time, any place, any where They can be man made or natural

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Disaster and Crisis

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Presentation Transcript
disaster and crisis
Disaster and Crisis

Planning and Management

planning and preparing
Planning and Preparing

Logistical Planning

  • Federal
  • State
  • City
  • District
  • Staff
  • Students
  • Parents
  • Volunteers
  • Others
emergency preparedness
Emergency Preparedness
  • Emergency situations can occur at any time, any place, any where
  • They can be man made or natural
  • They may involve a single individual or large populations
  • They may do minimal or massive damage
basic emergency guidelines
Basic Emergency Guidelines

Size up the situation

  • Day
  • Time
  • Type of occupancy
  • Type of construction
  • Weather
  • Hazards
  • Size of area
  • Number of people

Do not try to rescue anyone unless it is safe for you! Do not add to the problem by becoming a victim too.

know your students and staff
Know your Students and Staff
  • First Aid/CPR cards –

who has them, who should?

  • Health restrictions - physical restrictions or disabilities
  • Medication concerns –daily, photo-sensitive,

3 day supply?

  • Itinerant staff –

personnel and schedules

  • Parent volunteers
  • Other concerns
safety concerns
Safety Concerns
  • Be part of the solution, not part of the problem.
  • Always work in pairs.
  • Wear protective shoes; keep appropriate walking shoes with your emergency kit.
  • Communicate regularly with a partner, group, leader, and people being rescued.
  • Review escape plans with students and staff.
measures to ensure safety
Measures to Ensure Safety
  • Review District Bulletins and Guidelines
  • Plan for the unexpected – think about possible alternative plans.
  • Take all practice drills seriously.
step one triage
Step One: Triage

Triage is divided into two major areas

  • Psychological Triage
  • Medical Triage
psychological triage
Psychological Triage

Is complex and involves several basic aspects:

  • The rapid identification of victims in possible emotional distress.
  • Establishing priorities for the care of potential victims.

Psychological triage will be covered later in the Training.

medical triage
Medical Triage

Medical triage involves two basic components:

  • The identification of victims at greatest risk for early death.
  • Establishing priorities for the care of large numbers of victims
  • START will be used to evaluate victims
start goals
  • Simple
  • Rapid
  • No special skills required
  • No specific diagnosis
  • Stabilization provided
  • Easy to learn and teach
start simple triage and rapid treatment
START(Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment)

What is START?

  • The START plan is a simple step-by-step triage and treatment method to be used by the first rescuers responding to a mass casualty incident.
  • It allows the first responders to identify victims at greatest risk for early death.
  • To provide basic stabilization maneuvers.
who can use start
Who Can Use START?


was specifically designed for basic emergency personnel. Other groups may choose to use START as the first step in their triage systems.

start basics
START Basics


  • Respirations
  • Perfusion
  • Mental Status

Where do I start?

triage tag
Triage Tag
  • is an identification tag used in a multi casualty incident to prioritize victims for care, (triage).
  • is a tag to attach to the victim, with four colored code strips to prioritized care.
the four triage tag colors
Green Strip

Yellow Strip

Red Strip

Black Strip

Minor– bottom strip

-Injuries managed byfirst aid only

-No hospital care needed at the moment

Delayed– second from the bottom

-Needs hospital care, but not immediate

Immediate– third form the bottom

-Needs emergency care now

-Should receive attention before all others

Deceased– fourth from the bottom

-Dead or non-salvageable, No CPR is done

The Four TRIAGE TAG Colors
what do i do first
Nothing – open airway, still no breathing, tag black Deceasedand move to the next victim.

If person starts to breath, tag red Immediate.

Respirations 30/minute or higher, tag red Immediate.

Respirations under 30/minute, go to the next step – Perfusion.

What do I do first?


  • RED

Capillary blanch refill test:

  • Color should return to lips or nail beds within 2 seconds, if so go to Mental Status.
  • If longer than 2 seconds, tag redImmediate.

Remember - Control Bleeding

what if the lights are out
What if the lights are out?

The Radial Pulse may be used in reduced lighting


  • Not palpable, tag red immediate
  • If palpable, go to Mental Status

Remember - Control Bleeding

mental status
Mental Status
  • Altered mental status, tag red - Immediate.
  • Normal mental status, tag yellow - Delayed.
let the search begin
Let the Search Begin…

Search Systematically

  • Never search alone!
  • Take the proper supplies, equipment, and keys
  • Select team members according to physical abilities
  • Never enter a building /room without notifying the command center first.
  • When entering a building/room, place a piece of tape on the door forming the first half of an X - /
  • Use a consistent systematically room check
  • When the building/room is clear, complete the X

The Search Team will search first, then become part of the Rescue Team

basic search equipment
Basic Search Equipment
  • Boxes – one for each search team to store their equipment in
  • Hard Hats/ Gloves/ Goggles/ Vests/ Backpacks/ Dust Masks/ Whistles/ School Maps – one set per member
  • Walkie Talkie – at least one per team
  • MetTags/Triage tags/3x5 cards with safety pins – to tag victims
  • Clipboards/ pencils/ pens/ markers
  • Log Sheets – to record victims location and condition
  • Flashlights – at least one per team, change batteries annually
  • Masking Tape – to mark doors, people, or ???
  • Crowbar – to pry open doors and windows, one per team
  • Light weight rope – to string between team members, rope off an area, secure tents, or ???
  • START guidelines and Basic Vital Sign Guidelines
  • Additional Equipment – any items the school feels is necessary

Remember to store in an easily accessible central location

steps after initial triage
Steps After Initial TRIAGE
  • Establish first aid station
  • Start initial first aid
  • Reassess the “walking wounded” and those previously TRIAGED
establishing the 1 st aid station
Establishing the 1st Aid Station

Generally divided into four smaller stations

  • Triage/Communication Center–organizes, records, receives, and directs 1st Aid and rescue services.
  • Green Station–Minor, treat and release
  • Yellow Station – Delayed, needs hospital care, but can wait.
  • Red Station – Immediate, needs emergency care now. Should receive attention first.

Any victim tagged with Black goes directly to the morgue.

basic 1 st aid equipment
Basic 1st Aid Equipment

Review District Bulletins and Policies Q-5, Q-48, Q-50

  • First Aid kits

- one per 100 students, see supply order catalogs.

- Review expiration dates and replace as needed.

  • Stethoscopes/Blood Pressure Cuff

with varying cuff sizes

  • Walkie Talkie and Flash Lights
  • Large laminated map of the school and grease pencils
  • Clipboards/ pencils/ pens/ Log Sheets
  • Red/ Yellow/ Green Triage Station Locator Signs
  • Tarps/ Tents/ Blankets/ Pillows
rescue team
Rescue Team
  • Rescue members meet at the 1st Aid station
  • The Search Team will join the Rescue Team, once they have completed their search
  • Each team consists of 2 – 4 members
  • Take appropriate equipment -

Stretchers, 1st Aid kits, etc.

No one goes anywhere alone

emergency classroom kits
Emergency Classroom Kits

Suggested items:

  • Classroom rosters
  • Emergency plans
  • Paper, pencils, pens, crayons, or other age appropriate items
  • Crackers or similar food item
  • Butcher paper to sit on
  • Walking shoes or other items?
  • Chain or rope ladders for second floor classrooms

The kit needs to be easy to carry and quickly accessible

  • What does your school site need to be safe?
  • Who will you discuss your concerns with?
  • Where will the funding come from?
  • What are the District, State, Federal requirements?