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Chap. 10 Regional Ecology – Major Ecosystem Types and Biomes. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境與生態學院. 2008 年 2 月至 6 月. Regional Ecology. Marine Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Terrestrial biomes Human-designed and managed systems. Table 10-1. 1 Marine Ecosystems.

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chap 10 regional ecology major ecosystem types and biomes

Chap. 10 Regional Ecology – Major Ecosystem Types and Biomes

鄭先祐 (Ayo)

國立台南大學 環境與生態學院

2008年2月至6月

regional ecology
Regional Ecology
  • Marine Ecosystems
  • Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Terrestrial biomes
  • Human-designed and managed systems

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide3

Table 10-1.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

1 marine ecosystems
1 Marine Ecosystems
  • the major oceans (Antarctic, Arctic, Atlantic, India, and Pacific) and their connectors and extensions cover approximately 70% of the surface of Earth.
  • Physical factors dominate life in the ocean.
    • Waves, tides, currents, salinity, temperature, pressure, and light intensity.
  • Ocean play a major role in shaping the weather and climate over the entire Earth.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

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海洋表面與海底

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

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Fig. 10-2. The major upwellings (dark areas) and ocean currents driven by the winds and by Earth’s rotation.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

upwelling regions
Upwelling regions
  • High concentration of nutrients and organisms
  • The immense fish (and bird) population can be attributed not only to high productivity but also to short food chains. Some species that are carnivorous in oceanic region become herbivorous in upwelling regions.
  • Sediments deposited on the sea floor have high organic content.
  • In contrast to the richness of the sea, the adjacent land area is often a coastal desert because winds must blow from land to sea.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide9

Fug. 10-3. Transects of (A) a sandy beach and (B) a rocky shore, showing zones and characteristic dominant species.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

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Fug. 10-3. Transects of (A) a sandy beach and (B) a rocky shore, showing zones and characteristic dominant species.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

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Fig. 10-4. Map of the deep sea hydrothermal vents of the world.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

2 b 1 500 335 o c
圖2. (B) 於1,500公尺深的海底,熱水的噴出,水溫高達335oC。噴口有笠貝雨水底軟體蟲。

圖2 (c) 火山口的另一個區域。水溫只有15oC。大型的多毛蟲

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

essay
Essay 海底的特殊生活方式
  • 於近Galapagos 島嶼的深海底,沒有陽光。但有許多生物在此地區生活。
  • 這個地區的能量是來自地熱,有機物質是源自細菌分解 H2S,而不是H2O。
  • 類似這種生活,分散在全球多處深海底。

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

essay14
Essay 海底的特殊生活方式

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

marine ecosystems
Marine ecosystems
  • Estuaries (河口區)
  • Seashores (海岸區)
  • Mangroves (紅樹林)
  • Coral reefs (珊瑚礁)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide16

A rocky shore

  • Georgia salt marsh

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

intertidal zonation
Intertidal Zonation

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide18

Fig. 10-6. (A) Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

coral reefs types
Coral Reefs - Types

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

2 freshwater ecosystems
2 Freshwater Ecosystems
  • lentic (standing-water) ecosystem: lakes and ponds
  • lotic (running-water) ecosystem: springs, streams, and rivers
  • wetlands: marshes and swamps

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide23

Fig. 10-7. (B) a pond depicting the littoral zone dominated by cattails (Typha) (香蒲)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide24

Fig. 10-7 (C) A stream ( lotic ecosystem)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

lentic ecosystems
Lentic ecosystems
  • Littoral zone, containing rooted vegetation along the shore
  • Liminetic zone (open water), dominated by plankton
    • Epilimnion, hypolimnion, thermocline
  • Profundal zone (deep-water), containing only heterotrophs
  • Benthic zone, dominated by bottom-dwelling organisms.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

lake structure
Lake Structure

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

lotic ecosystems
Lotic ecosystems
  • River continuum concept, involving longitudinal changes in community metabolism, biotic diversity, and particle size from headwater to river mouth, describes how biotic communities adjust to changing conditions.
    • A rapid zone
    • A pool zone

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

freshwater wetlands
Freshwater wetlands
  • A freshwater wetland is defined as any area covered by shallow freshwater for a least part of the annual cycle; accordingly, wetland soils are saturated with water continually or for part of the year.
    • Riverine wetlands
    • Lacustrine (lake) wetlands
    • Palustrine (marsh) wetlands
    • Forested wetlands (swamp)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide29

Fig. 10-8. Microbial decomposition and recycling in wetland sediments. The four major anaerobic decomposers gasify—and thereby recycle into the atmosphere—carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide30

Fig. 10-9. (A) a wetland forest (swamp)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide32

Fig. 10-10. (A) a northern salt marsh.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide33

Fig. 10-10. (B) Low tide on a tidal marsh are typical

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide34

Fig. 10-10. (C) A freshwater tidal marsh with cypress trees bordering on the Altamaha River.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

3 terrestrial biomes
3 Terrestrial Biomes
  • biomes, the level of organization between the landscape and global (ecosphere) levels of organization.
  • life zone concept
    • Based on the relationship between climate and vegetation.
  • association,
    • a unique ecosystem type or natural unit of vegetation, often dominated by particular species.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

3 terrestrial biomes36
3 Terrestrial Biomes
  • ecoregions,
    • ecosystems based on a continuous geographic or landscape area across which the interactions of climate, soil, and topography are sufficiently uniform to permit the development of similar types of vegetation.
  • life form
    • grass, shrub, deciduous tree, coniferous,…..

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide37

Fig. 10-11. Whittaker’s (1975) patterns of world plant formations, based on the relationship of mean annual precipitation (cm) to mean annual temperature (oC)

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide39

Fig. 10-13. Major biomes of the world

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide40

Fig. 10-13 (B) Schematic map of the major biomes of North America.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide41

Fig. 10-14. Distribution of six major biomes in terms of mean annual temperature and mean annual rainfall.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide42
Tundra– Arctic and Alpine
  • Polar and high-mountain ice caps
  • Northern Coniferous forest biomes
  • Temperate deciduous forests
  • Temperate Grasslands
  • Tropical Grasslands and savannas
  • Chaparral and sclerophyllous woodland
  • Deserts
  • Semi-evergreen seasonal tropical forests
  • Tropical rain forests
  • Tropical scrub or thornwoods
  • Mountains
  • Caves

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide43

Fig. 10-15. Two views of the Tundra in July on the Coastal plain near the Arctic Research Laboratory.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide45

Fig. 10-16. Three kinds of coniferous forests. (A) A high-altitudes forest of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in Colorado.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide46

Fig. 10-18 (B) A spruce forest in Idaho with yellow in the fall.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide47

Fig. 10-18. (C) An example of a moist coniferous forest, often termed temperate rain forest.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide48

Fig. 10-17 (A) A virgin stand of deciduous temperate forest in Hueston Woods State Park, near Oxford, Ohio.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide49

Fig. 10-18. Konza Prairie, a 3487 hectare native tallgrass prairie, located n the Flint Hills region of northeastern Kansas, is dominated by perennial, warm-season grasses.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide51

Fig. 10-21. Migration of wild-beast (Connochaetes taurinus) across the savanna in Africa.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide53

Fig. 10-23. (A) a low altitude “hot” desert near South Mercury, Nevada, dominated by creosote bush.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide54

Fig. 10-23. (B) An Arizona desert at a somewhat higher elevation, with several kinds of cacti and a greater variety of desert shrubs and small trees.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide55

Fig. 10-24. View of a lowland seasonal tropical forest in Brazil.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

slide58

Fig. 10-27.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

4 human designed and managed systems
4 Human-Designed and Managed Systems
  • agroecosystems, are domesticated ecosystems that are in many ways intermediate between natural ecosystems, such as grasslands and forests, and fabricated ecosystems, such as cities.
  • urban-industrial technoecosystems, are energetic island with large ecological footprints in the matrix of natural and agricultural landscapes.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

agroecosystems
agroecosystems
  • Solar powered, but differ from natural ecosystems in several ways
    • The auxiliary energy sources that enhance productivity, but also increase pollution, are processed by fossil fuels, along with human and animal labor.
    • Diversity is greatly reduced by human management
    • Artificial selection
    • Control is external and goal oriented.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

conservation ecology
Conservation ecology
  • Conservation biology (ecology), provides an integrative approach and field of study, focusing on the protection and management of biodiversity based on the principles of both applied and basic ecology.
  • In recent decades, the social sciences, especially sociology, economics, ethics, and philosophy, have become prominent components of these protection and management processes.

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes

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問題與討論

Japalura@hotmail.com

Ayo 台南站:

http://mail.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/

chap.10 Major Ecosystem types and Biomes