Immune System Vocabulary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Immune System Vocabulary

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  1. Immune System Vocabulary Part 2

  2. a surface protein on a pathogen that causes antibodies to be generated by white blood cells. When T cell receptors and the antibodies produced by B cells recognize and bind to antigens, a specific immune response is initiated. Antigen

  3. “recognition hands” on lymphocytes Antigen Receptors

  4. the sites on antigens that the immune system recognizes Antigenic Determinants/Epitotes

  5. mechanism by which exposure to antigen results in the activation of selected T- or B- cell clones, resulting in an immune response; making effector cells (fighters) and memory cells (for future flights); the binding of an antigen to a specific receptor on the surface of a B cell stimulates that cell to divide, producing clones Clonal Selection

  6. inactivation or destruction of lymphocyte clones that would produce immune reactions against the animal’s own body Clonal Deletion

  7. a failure of clonal deletion leads to an immune response within an individual to self-antigens Autoimmunity

  8. carry out the attack on the antigen Effector Cells

  9. effector B cells that secrete antibodies Plasma Cells

  10. long-lived cells that retain the ability to start dividing on short notice to produce more effector and more memory cells Memory Cells

  11. the first time a vertebrate animal is exposed to a particular antigen Primary immune response

  12. a rapid and intense response to a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen, initiated by memory cells Secondary immune response

  13. using lymphocytes to fight infections Specific Immune Responses

  14. the capacity to more rapidly and massively respond to a second exposure to an antigen than occurred on first exposure Immunological Memory

  15. these “kill” by producing antibodies B (bursa) Lymphocytes

  16. These “kill” by using chemicals to kill infected cells • Cytotoxic T cells- actually kill infected cells by releasing perforin • Helper T cells- help turn on the B cells to make antibodies and cytotoxic cells to kill T (thymus Lymphocytes

  17. B cells that make antibodies are the work-horses of this response, B cells mature and become plasma cells; interleukin 2 released from T-helper cell (2nd messenger)…happens when antigen binds to a B cell that has an antibody specific for the antigen. HumoralImmune Response

  18. cytotoxic T cells are the workhorses for this response; key event in the process is the exposure of the antigen to the immune system, where recognition can occur… happens when antigen is inserted into plasma membrane of antigen-presenting cell Cell Immune Response

  19. has unique epitope structure protruding from the cell membrane where the antigen is bound Antigen Presenting Cell

  20. globular proteins of the immune system; structure: • Heavy chains and light chains: linked by disulfide bridges using cysteine amino acid • Variable region- changes to match the pathogen’s antigen • Constant region- never changes in making the “handle on the tongs” the part where the antibody can safely grab Immunoglobulins