comparative lca of flooring materials ceramic vs marble tiles l.
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Comparative LCA of Flooring materials: Ceramic vs. Marble Tiles. Mari Nissinen. Background. Italy is the most important producer of ceramic and marble tiles for buildings Italy covers 23% of the world output of ceramic tiles 18% of the world output of marble tiles

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Presentation Transcript
background
Background
  • Italy is the most important producer of ceramic and marble tiles for buildings
  • Italy covers 23% of the world output of ceramic tiles
  • 18% of the world output of marble tiles
  • Growing interest in environmental concerns in the building sector
the goal and scope 1 2
The Goal and Scope (1/2)
  • To compare environmental profiles of the ceramic and marble tile  which one has the best environmental profile? What are the hot-spots of the systems?
  • Single-fired ceramic vs. marble tile
  • Functional unit: 1m2 and period: 40 years
  • Few operations have been excluded
the goal and scope 2 2
The Goal and Scope (2/2)
  • No allocation procedure was done
  • Impact assessment methodology is problem-oriented
  • Impact categories: abiotic resources, global warming,ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, aquatic toxicity, acidification, nutrification and photochemical oxidant creation
  • Normalisation factors by Directoraat-Generaal Rijkswaterstaat
  • Weighting factors by NOGEPA
assumptions
Assumptions
  • Emissions of the electric energy production are relative to the Italian energy system
  • The distance of the transport of the packaging materials is 10km from the collection point to the municipal solid waste incinerator
  • The distance of the tilling demolition to the landfill is 20km
ceramic tile
Ceramic Tile
  • Average weight: 18kg/m2
  • Manufacturing in North Italy
  • The main countries from which raw material are imported, are identified using the Italian Trade Statistics
  • Flue gas amounts are averages of different plants
  • Manufacturing waste is recycled into the system
  • Average life of the tiles: 20 years
marble tile
Marble Tile
  • Average weight 48,6kg/m2, thickness 1,8cm
  • Manufactured in the centre of Italy
  • Manufacturing waste is recycled out of the system after the required treatments
  • Distance from the sedimentation tank to the landfill for sludge is 10km
  • Filter-press solid waste (marmettola) disposal in landfill, distance 10km
  • Average life 40 years
ceramic tile inventory analysis 1 6
Ceramic tile inventory analysis (1/6)
  • Two stages of productive cycle: 1) Body & glaze manufacturing and 2) Laying of the glaze to the body and the firing of the glazed body
  • The process starts with the wet grinding of raw materials, after the forming it is dried in kilns
  • 1,15-1,2t raw materials is needed to obtain 1t of finished product
ceramic tile inventory analysis 2 6
Ceramic tile inventory analysis (2/6)
  • Raw materials:
  • Argillaceous materials (45%)
  • Degreasing materials (15%)
  • Soldering materials (40%: feldspars (25%) and limestone (15%))
  • Recovered materials
ceramic tile inventory analysis 3 6
Ceramic tile inventory analysis (3/6)
  • Mix preparation consists of grinding, mixing-soaking and regulation of the water content
  • The main emissions in to the atmosphere are related to the movement and grinding of raw materials (dust & burning of natural gas)
  • Aim of forming is to mould the tile in the spesific ”green” format. Pressing process is used in forming
  • The water content of a dried tile is <1%
ceramic tile inventory analysis 4 6
Ceramic tile inventory analysis (4/6)
  • Glazes can be transparent, opaque or coloured
  • 1kg/m2 of glaze is required for the enamelling
  • Fuel for firing kilns is methane
  • Water required is 12 l/m2
  • Packaging: cardboard boxes with polythene sheets
  • No emissions during the use phase
  • Disposal: landfill
marble tile inventory analysis 1 2
Marble tile inventory analysis (1/2)
  • Productive cycle consists of
  • Quarry operations
  • Raw blocks cutting
  • Cutting of the standard size blocks
  • Polishing, buffing
  • Packaging: wooden boxes
  • Disposal: landfill
impact assessment 1 8
Impact Assessment (1/8)
  • Electric and thermal energy needed to manufacture of 1m2 ceramic tile is 161,67MJ
  • Marble tile 161,83MJ
  • Ceramic tile process requires lots of thermal energy and marble electric energy
  • Most important categories in eco-indicators are global warming, human toxicity and acidification
results
Results
  • Marble tile (1,90e-12) scores about two times better than ceramic tile (4,21e-12)
  • Emissions to air for both over 90% of emissions
  • The highest environmental burden for marble tile system is preproduction
  • For ceramic system: preparation of the body, fusion of the frit and the firing of the glazed body
  • Marble tile process requires much electric energy, ceramic process thermal energy
  • Improvements suggested be done: more efficient technology for marble  energy costs ↓

Ceramic: thermal energy ↓