Bell Ringer – Copy the VocabThe Rise of Europe • Medieval Civilization • Vikings • Magyars • Germanic Peoples • Franks • Charles Martel • Battle of Tours • Reconquista • Charlemagne • Treaty of Verdun • Feudalism • Feudal contract • Fief • Manor 15. Chivalry 16. Knight 17. Medieval Church 18. Priest 19. Monks/Nuns 20. Papal Supremacy 21. Canon Law 22. Antisemitism 23. Revival of trade 24. Tenant Farmer 25. Middle Class 26. Guilds
Dates of the Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Section 1 The Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages • During this time, Europe was cut off from advanced civilizations in the Middle East, China, and India. • Eventually, a new European civilization emerged that blended Greco-Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions: Medieval Civilization
The Germanic Kingdoms After the fall of Rome, Germanic tribes divided Western Europe into many small kingdoms. The Germanic peoples • were farmers and herders. • had no cities or written laws. • elected kings to lead them in war. • rewarded warrior nobles who swore loyalty to the king with weapons and loot.
The Franks • The Franks were the strongest of the Germanic tribes. • Clovis, king of the Franks, conquered Gaul and then converted to Christianity, which became the religion of the people in Gaul • He gained a powerful ally (Pope) in the Christian Church of Rome, Catholicism
Battle of TOURS - OCTOBER 10, 732 AD (CE) • By the numbers: • Charles Martel (Franks) • 20-30,000 Men • Abdul Rahman • (Muslims) • Almost 80,000 Men • Losses: • Franks – 1,500 • Muslims – 10,000
Charles Martel http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8q0PpIUN4g • Islamic warriors crossed the Pyrenees Mountains in 732 AD and attempted to conquer the Franks. • A Frankish general named Charles Martel defeated the Muslim army. • Battle of Tours (732 AD)- Frankish (Christian) warriors had a victory over the Muslims. • This victory is considered the beginning of the reconquista. • The Reconquistawas the Christian reconquest of Europe after the invasion of the Moors.
Big Idea Question: (Copy and answer in short essay)What impact did the victory at Tours have for Europe and Christianity? Ensured the continuation of Western Christianity throughout Europe which eventually spread to North America during the exploration era and the settling of America. Christianity in America
Big Idea Question: (Copy and answer in short essay)What impact did the victory at Tours have for Europe and Christianity? • He expanded the Frankish territory under his control and in 732 repulsed an onslaught by the Muslims. • Victory at Tours ensured the ruling dynasty of Martel's family, the Carolingians. His son Pepin became the first Carolingian king of the Franks, and his grandson Charlemagne carved out a vast empire that stretched across Europe which became the Holy Roman Empire. • Ensured the continuation of Western Christianity throughout Europe which eventually spread to North America during the exploration era and the settling of America.
Charlemagne: 742 to 814 • Charlemagne, a name that means Charles the Great, was Charles Martel's grandson and the greatest of the Frankish kings as well as the first Holy Roman Emperor!
The Empire of Charlemagne • Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III by crushing a rebellion in Rome against the nobles. • In gratitude, the pope crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans. SIGNIFICANCE: • By crowning a Germanic king successor to the Roman emperors, the pope revived the ideal of a united Christian community. • This action created the Holy Roman Empire! • This action laid the ground for struggles between future Roman Catholic popes and German emperors.
Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800 AD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4PI8dEWTGE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyDPJENZOs0
Bell Ringer – 11/3/14 • Utilize the Atlas Map Book on pages 56-57 to copy and answer the following questions • What was life like for people in the Middle Ages? • Which Frankish king conquered most of Western Europe? • According to the map on page 57, What year did Charlemagne become emperor of the West? • How many modern day countries did Charlemagne’s empire extend into? (List them) • Who is the Pope?
The Age of Charlemagne • Charlemagne tried to exercise control over his empire and create a united Christian Europe. He helped spread Christianity to the conquered people on the fringes of the empire. • Charlemagne revived Latin learning in his empire and strived to create a “second Rome.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyDPJENZOs0
Legacy of Charlemagne • Extended Christian civilization • Further blended German, Roman, and Christian traditions • He set up strong efficient governments that later rulers would try to model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnFctcpZIKM
Invasions After Charlemagne • After Charlemagne’s death his empire was split into three by his grandsons in the Treaty of Verdun. • Muslim forces posed a threat to Europe • Magyars from Russia settled in Europe • Vikings (Germanic) from Scandinavia were destructive raiders, traders, and explorers. They settled all over Europe. Leif Erikson set up a short-lived Viking colony on North America.
The Emergence of Feudalism • In the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order. • In response to this need for protection, response to weak government, and lack of laws; a new political and social system called feudalism evolved. • Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. In exchange, lesser lords, or vassals, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord. • Feudal Contract: exchange of pledges between lords and vassals • Fief: An estate the lord granted to his vassal
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service, mutual obligations.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QV7CanyzhZg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zO-8f3XpNMg Feudal Society Kings • Give large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs • Give Protection • Receives money, military service, and advice Upper Lords / Vassals / Nobels • Give land grants to Lesser Lords • Give Protection • Receives money, military service Knights • Give land to peasants/serfs • Receives crops, labor Merchants / Craftsmen • Provided Specialized Goods to the Knights / Nobles / Lords Peasants / Serfs • Receives land to farm • Pays with labor, crops Under the feudal system, everyone had a well-defined place in society.
The Manor Economy • The manor, or lord’s estate or fief, was the heart of the medieval economy. • Peasants and lords were bound by mutual obligation (feudal contracts). • The peasant worked for the lord. • In exchange, the peasant received protection and a small amount of land to farm.
The Medieval Manor • Based on self-sufficiency. • Early Middle Age center for agricultural production.
Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work
Serfs were bound to the land. They were not slaves, yet they were not free. Serfs made up the majority of the population in medieval society. Life was very harsh. Warfare was a way of life. Many trained from boyhood to be knights, or mounted warriors Fought for Lord, feudal lord, and chivalry Peasants and Nobles
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Trained from boyhood for the occupation of a Knight, or mounted warrior. As feudal warfare decreased, knights would compete in tournaments, or mock battles.
“Stepping Out” Before the Bell - Climb these stair first!
Bell Ringer – Map book pages 60-6111/11/14 • Copy and Answer the following Questions • What did the a lord or local leader need to protect his land? • How long did the Holy Roman Empire survive? • Who were the nobles? • What were the roles of the monks and priests? • What were the roles of the serfs?
The Church and Medieval Life • The medieval church was a social center as well as a place of worship. • Christian rituals and faith were part of the fabric of everyday life (sacraments). • Priests guided people on issues of values and morality. • Church required people to pay a tithe (10% of their income). • Monks and nuns cared for the poor and sick, set up schools for children, and gave food and lodging to travelers. • Friars were monks who did not live in a monastery, but traveled and preached to the poor.
The Power of the Church Grows • In the centuries after the fall of Rome, the Church became the most powerful secular, or worldly, force in medieval Europe • Medieval popes began to claim papal supremacy,or authority over all secular(worldly rulers/kings) rulers. • The medieval Church developed its own body of laws, known as canon law,as well as its own courts. Anyone who disobeyed canon law faced a range of penalties. • The Church also had absolute power in religious matters.
Religious Authority • Excommunication: Pope forbade people to receive sacraments or a Christian burial • Interdict: an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving some sacraments or a Christian burial
Jews in Europe • Jewish communities existed across Europe. • In hard times, Christians persecuted the Jews, blaming them for economic problems, illness, and disasters. • Prejudice against Jews is called anti-semitism. • In response to growing persecution, thousands of Jews migrated from Western to Eastern Europe. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7cUuxh3CYY
Agricultural Revolution New farming technologies iron plow harness windmill three-field system Increase in food production Population explosion Between 1000 and 1300, the population of Europe doubled.
Revival of Trade in Europe • Europe’s growing population needed goods that were not available to them. • As foreign invasions and feudal warfare declined, trade increased
Commercial Revolution • The revival of trade led to a revolution in commerce(trade and money being exchanged)! • As trade revived, merchants needed money to buy goods. The reintroduction of money led European merchants to develop new business practices, such as: • setting up banks • joining together to set up partnerships • developing insurance • adopting the bill of exchange
Social Changes • The commercial revolution not only transformed the medieval economy, it also reshaped medieval society. • The use of money undermined serfdom. Most peasants became tenant farmersor hired farm laborerswho kept a small plot of land and a small home. • In towns, a new middle classof merchants, traders, and artisans emerged. • The Church forbade Christians from becoming moneylenders. Since Jews were barred from other professions, many took on this role.