physical activity promotion prevention of chronic disease morbidity mortality l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 64

Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 149 Views
  • Uploaded on

Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality. Antronette (Toni) Yancey, MD, MPH, FACPM Associate Professor, Dept. of Health Services, Co-Director, Ctr. to Eliminate Health Disparities UCLA School of Public Health www.ph.ucla.edu/cehd www.toniyancey.com.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality' - mikasi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
physical activity promotion prevention of chronic disease morbidity mortality

Physical Activity Promotion: Prevention of Chronic Disease Morbidity & Mortality

Antronette (Toni) Yancey, MD, MPH, FACPM

Associate Professor, Dept. of Health Services,

Co-Director, Ctr. to Eliminate Health Disparities

UCLA School of Public Health

www.ph.ucla.edu/cehd

www.toniyancey.com

unhealthy eating and inactivity are leading causes of death in the u s
Unhealthy eating and inactivity are leading causes of death in the U.S.

Leading Contributorsto Premature Death1

  • HHS estimates that unhealthy eating and inactivity contribute to 310,000 to 580,000 deathseach year. That’s 5 times more than are killed by guns, HIV, and drug use combined.1
  • The typical American diet is too high in saturated fat, cholesterol, salt, and refined sugar and too low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, calcium, and fiber.
  • Such a diet contributes to four of the seven leading causes of death and increases the risk of numerous diseases, including:

heart disease diabetes

cancer high blood pressure

    • obesity osteoporosis
    • stroke
  • 60% of Americans are at risk for health problems related to lack of physical activity (ie: get less than 30 minutes of moderate activity 5 or more times per week). 2

Leading Causes of Death3

(Diet is a leading risk factor for causes of death shown in bold or green.)

slide3

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

  • The goal was to study the reduction in incidence of Type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin
  • All patients had impaired fasting blood sugars, but were not diabetic
  • Their were randomized to placebo, metformin or a lifestyle modification with goal of at least 7 % weight loss, at least 150 minutes of exercise per week
  • They were followed over 2.8 years
slide4

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

Lifestyle intervention was much more effective than either placebo or metformin

DPP Research Group. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:393-403.

fitness mortality
Fitness & Mortality
  • Low fitness is bad for health
walking cvd
Walking & CVD
  • Walking as little as 5 mins. daily is beneficial for fitness
  • 30 mins. daily provides best health benefit (heart disease prevention)
  • 60 mins daily can cause reversal of heart disease
physical activity risk of common cancers
Physical Activity& Risk of Common Cancers
  • Colon: 30-40% decreased risk among active men & women (Rectal—no association)
  • Breast: substantial evidence for dec risk; strength of assn--time period may be critical
  • Prostate: findings inconclusive
  • Possible mechanisms:

1. decreased GI transit time (dec carc expos)

2. enhanced immune function (moderate PA)

3. lowered levels of reproductive hormones

population attributable fraction cancer mortality male never smokers
Population Attributable Fraction Cancer Mortality – Male Never Smokers

Population

BMI Exposure* RR† PAR (%)

25.0-29.9 42% 1.1 4.0%

30.0-34.9 21% 1.4 6.8%

>35.0 13% 1.3 3.4%

14.2%

*NHANES 2000, men age 50-69

population attributable fraction cancer mortality women never smokers
Population Attributable Fraction Cancer Mortality – Women Never Smokers

Population

BMI Exposure* RR† PAR (%)

25.0-29.9 29% 1.1 3.3%

30.0-34.9 23% 1.3 6.1%

35.0-39.9 11% 1.4 3.5%

>40.0 8% 1.9 7.0%

19.8%

*NHANES 2000, women age 50-69

slide10

http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/Trends/trendchart_c.asp?state_c=CA&state=US&qkey=10020&SUBMIT1=Gohttp://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/Trends/trendchart_c.asp?state_c=CA&state=US&qkey=10020&SUBMIT1=Go

YEAR % Obese % No LTPA

1991 10% 23.3%

1995 14.4% 22.7%

1998 16.8% 25.5%

1999 19.6% no data

2000 19.2% 26.5%

BRFSS DATA

20

15

10

5

30

25

20

15

%

No

LTPA

%

obese

1991 1995 1998 2000

lesser effectiveness of key environmental interventions in underserved groups example
Lesser Effectiveness of Key Environmental Interventions in Underserved Groups: Example

Posting of Signs Promoting Stair Usage

(suburban Baltimore mall)

  • Overall, stair use increased from 4.8% to 6.9%, 7.2%, depending upon which of 2 signs used
  • Among whites, increased from 5.1% to 7.5%, 7.8%
  • Among blacks, changed from 4.1% to 3.4%, 5.0%
  • Among n’l wt, inc from 5.4% to 7.2%, 6.9%
  • Among overwt, inc from 3.8% to 6.3%, 7.8%

Andersen, Franckowiak, Snyder et al., Ann Int Med, 1998;129:363-369.

excess physical environmental risk in underserved communities
Pervasive targeted commercial marketing

Distance to private fitness facilities

Few worksite fitness opportunities

Few/poor neighborhood recreation facilities

Lesser neighborhood safety

Poorer public/less reliable private transportation

Poorly equipped facilities

Poorly maintained sidewalks, e.g., cracks, litter, overgr. foliage

Fewer traffic calming devices, e.g., speed bumps

Ample car “accommodation,” e.g., parking, high- speed/multi-lane roads

=“Move insecurity”1, 2

1Jahns & Jones, AJPM 2004;26:1862Yancey, AJPM 2003;25(3Si)

Adapted from Kumanyika S. Obesity in Minority Populations. In Fairburn G & Brownell K, Eating Disorders and Obesity. A Comprehensive Handbook, 2002.

Excess physical environmental risk in underserved communities:
media project five city outdoor advertising content analysis
Media Project: five-city outdoor advertising content analysis

Funded by CA DHS, UT, Penn & RWJF

Cities: LA, Philadelphia, Austin, Sacramento, Fresno

Comparing high & low SES predominantly black, Latino, & white neighborhoods (all 6 categories not available in all cities, e.g., high SES black in Sacramento and Fresno)

Utilizing secondary data from CHIS, LACHS, grocery store scanner (MOU with major supermarket chain) purchase data for correlational analyses

preliminary findings
Preliminary findings
  • Absence of billboards and near-absence of other outdoor advertising in affluent white neighborhoods—existing ads unrel. to weight
  • Essentially no outdoor advertising of PA-promoting goods & services in any community, but large amount sedentary entertainment & transportation ads in low-inc. communities
  • Pervasiveness of advertising in low-inc. white & Latino communities, but more fast food, sugar-sweetened and alcoholic beverages in latter
  • City of LA has moratorium on new billboards, but in low-inc. Latino comm., large # of new side of building ads similarly framed

Findings must be interpreted in light of historical covenants, fewer ads trad. In unincorp. areas

excess sociocultural environmental risk in underserved communities
Cultural attitudes about work, activity, rest

Fears about safety

Prevalent obesity/norms

Female roles

Cultural reverence for cars

Hairstyle-related concerns about sweating

Increased screen time, e.g., TV viewing, movie-going

Excess sociocultural environmental risk in underserved communities:
la s espn radio 710 am ad
LA’s ESPN Radio 710 AM Ad

“We’re the prime rib on a dial full of tofu”

--March 2006

slide23

AVERAGE ENERGY EXPENDITURE ESTIMATES

Hunter-gatherers 5000 cal

1 million yrs ago

Agriculture 6000 cal

10,000 yrs ago

Laborers 3000 cal

1915

Office Workers 1800 cal

NOW

influence of self perceived weight status on pa la county adults
Influence of Self-Perceived Weight Status on PA,% LA County Adults
  • Overall, regardless of BMI, those perceiving themselves as overweight more sedentary than those with average wt. self-perception (45% vs. 30%)
  • Influence most pronounced for males and normal weight individuals
  • Overwt. self-perception not assoc. with sedentariness among white women, the only one of the 6 ethnic-gender groups included in which BMI<25 normative
  • In multivariate analysis, self-perceived overweight, not BMI, predicts sedentary behavior (OR=1.40, CI 1.19, 1.64)

Yancey, Simon et al., Obes (Res) 2006;14:980-8. Yancey, Wold et al., Am J Prev Med, 2004;27:146-52.

current population status
Current Population Status
  • Little change in leisure time physical activity (PA) during past several decades of obesity increases (1 in 5), but marked increases in sedentary entertainment, transportation, and other ADLs (Sturm, 2004)
  • PA levels within increasingly sedentary, deconditioned, overweight population are unlikely to increase primarily through individual motivation and volition—relatively little demand for goods & services or political will to push for aggressive legislative policy change, e.g., radical alteration in the built environment favoring bicycle, pedestrian, and mass transit over private automobile transportation
daily dose r x of physical activity
Daily “Dose” (Rx) of Physical Activity
  • 30-60 minutes/day on most (at least 5) days of the week
  • At least moderate intensity (=walking 1 ½ to 2 miles in 30 minutes)
  • Can be broken up into 10-minute stretches throughout the day
  • Every calorie burned is one that doesn’t end up around your waist!
slide31

AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN & HEART DISEASE

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

  • The goal was to study the reduction in incidence of Type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin
  • All patients had impaired fasting blood sugars, but were not diabetic
  • Their were randomized to placebo, metformin or a lifestyle modification with goal of at least 7 % weight loss, at least 150 minutes of exercise per week
  • They were followed over 2.8 years
population benefit estimates of risk factor change pa
Population benefit estimates of risk factor change: PA
  • 3-minute bouts of PA 10 times per day lowers serum triglycerides to same extent as 1 continuous 30-minute bout of PA (Miyashita et al., 2006)
  • Maintenance of moderate PA is assoc. with a 1/3 to 2/3 lowering of Type 2 diabetes (DM) incidence over 4-14 yrs (Clark, 1997)
  • Type 2 DM risk was 50% lower among individuals physically active at any level, and 66% lower among those at least moderately active (James et al., 1998)
  • Sedentary behaviors (e.g., TV watching) as well as sub-optimal >moderate PA levels contributed to DM & obesity risk over 6 yrs in women (Hu et al., 2003)
population obesity control early stage in development
Population Obesity Control: Early stage in development

Strategically, why focus on PA promotion first?

  • Less controversy, conflict, stigma than surrounding diet/nutrition
  • “Deep pocket” business interests, e.g., Nike & 24-Hour Fitness, stand to benefit from success of efforts (vs. “Big Food” losing $ because can’t as readily induce over-consumption of H2O, whole grains, legumes, F+V)
  • Cheaper & easier—10 min. supply 1/3 of PA “RDA”
  • May positively influence food preferences
population obesity control early stage in development35
Population Obesity Control: Early stage in development

To avoid exacerbating health risk/disease burden disparities, push strategies (skip-stop/slowed hydraulic elevators, restricted proximal parking, non-discretionary time exercise breaks, walking meetings) should be prioritized over pull strategies (building trails & parks, offering gym membership subsidies/discounts) at this early stage of development of environmental and policy approaches—make it easier to do it than notto do it!

population obesity control early stage in development cont
Population Obesity Control: Early stage in development (cont.)
  • Synergy will occur when supply (physical environmental access & appeal) meets demand (individual/ sociocultural motivation, prioritization, valuation, skills/interests, political will)
  • Demand must be created—need to structure in “unavoidable” experiences which increase aerobic conditioning, build skills & self-efficacy, foster enjoyment, elevate mood & energy, increase taste for water-bearing foods & less highly-sweetened beverages
spectrum of prevention health behavior change model
Spectrum of Prevention:Health behavior change model
  • Level 1: Strengthening individual knowledge and skills
  • Level 2: Promoting community education
  • Level 3: Educating service providers
  • Level 4: Fostering coalitions and networks
  • Level 5: Changing organizational practice
  • Level 6: Influencing policy and legislation
spectrum of prevention shift in health promotion field
Spectrum of Prevention:Shift in health promotion field

The most effective and sustainable PH intervention approaches of the past two decades are the more “upstream” ones (structural/environmental vs. individual-level), involving social norm change:

  • Tobacco control
  • Alcohol consumption and driving
  • Breastfeeding
  • Littering and recycling
rock richmond
ROCK! Richmond
  • Community-level fitness promotion initiative of Richmond City DPH/Medical College of Virginia
  • 3 major components: (1) free fitness instruction in CBOs in underserved areas; (2) environmental changes in conduct of city business (e.g., low-fat/ high-fiber food choices at city functions); (3) social marketing effort to reinforce norms supporting PA & healthy eating
  • Successful in recruiting disproportionately among population segments at highest risk for chronic disease (older, black, female, family hx of CA, CVD)

Yancey, Jordan, Bradford et al., Health Prom Practice, 2003

translating evidence based cdc acsm recommendations into culturally targeted intervention
Translating Evidence-Based CDC/ACSM Recommendations into Culturally-Targeted Intervention

Integrating 10-’ PA bouts into organizational routine:

  • Minimal intensity environmental intervention, e.g., stair prompts
  • Short bouts accommodate higher proportion sedentary individuals (incremental change)
  • Variable (max moderate) intensity, low-impact PA accommodates higher proportion overweight/obese and disabled individuals (higher perceived exertion, discomfort, functional limitations)
  • Passive (“push”) strategy relies less on individual motivation & facility access (early adopters scarce)
translating evidence based cdc acsm recommendation into culturally targeted intervention
Translating Evidence-Based CDC/ACSM Recommendation into Culturally-Targeted Intervention

Integrating 10-’ PA into organizational routine:

  • Movement to music integral to African-American, Latino culture—dancing normative for adults
  • Short bouts minimize perspiration, hairstyle disturbance
  • Social support & conformity desires drive participation (collectivist vs. indiv. orientation)
  • Addresses less activity conducive outdoor environments (safety, utility, aesthetics)
  • Designed for organizational settings for work, worship, other purposes--less disposable t, $
lift offs work the rapidly growing evidence base
Lift Offs Work!: the Rapidly Growing Evidence Base
  • Documented individual and organizational receptivity to integrating PA on paid work time
  • Contribute meaningfully to daily accumulation of MVPA
  • Motivational “teachable moment” linking sedentariness to health status for inactive folks
  • Improvements in clinical outcomes from as little as one 10-min. break/day—BP, BMI, waist circ., mood, attention span, cumulative trauma disorders
  • “Spill-over” or generalization to inc. active leisure
  • Favorable cost-benefit ratio, eg, L.L. Bean mfg plant
lac fitness wellness study design
LAC Fitness & Wellness Study:design
  • Randomized, controlled, post-test only, intervention trial testing the effects of incorporation of a 10-min exercise break into staff meetings & training seminars lasting > 1 hr
  • Outcome measures: (1) participation by sedentary/overweight individuals; (2) mood/affect; (3) satisfaction with health status/fitness level
  • 26 meetings (11 intervention, 15 control) with 449 county employees, mostly women of color
lac fitness wellness study results cont
LAC Fitness & Wellness Study:Results (cont.)
  • More than 90% of meeting attendees participated in the exercises

Among relatively sedentary participants:

  • Intervention participants’ satisfaction with fitness levels more highly correlated with PA stage of change (r=0.59) than controls (r=0.38, z=-2.32, p=0.02)

Among sedentary participants:

  • Intervention participants’ self-perceived health status ratings were significantly lower than controls (OR=0.17; 95% CI=0.05, 0.60; p=.0003

Yancey, McCarthy, Taylor et al. 2004;38:848-856

fuel up lift off la

Fuel Up/Lift Off! LA

Video/audio (DVD/CD) excerpt:

movement break (Lift Off) demonstration

www.ph.ucla.edu/cehd

slide53

Propuesta de colaboración

Implementación de la pausa para la Salud:

  • Evaluar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular previo a la intervención de actividad física.
  • Promover de 15 a 20 minutos de actividad física dentro de la jornada laboral, iniciando con 10 minutos hasta alcanzar máximo 20 minutos.
  • Promover la orientación alimentaria dentro de la jornada laboral.
  • Logros alcanzados en un año 0.4 kg/m2 menos de BMI (1 kg) y 1.6 cm menos de cintura promedio en los trabajadores en un año.

Lara A, Yancey A, Tapia-Conyer R et al., in preparation, 2006

slide54
Community Health Council’s (CHC’s) REACH 2010 demonstration project--African Americans Building a Legacy of Health

Intervention:Multi-component, centered around modeling the behaviors promoted (“walking the talk”)–(1) incorporation of fitness breaks into meetings, events and other gatherings; (2) provision of wellness training focused on changing the norms of organizations to incorporate PA & healthy food choices into their regular conduct of business (organizational wellness); (3) provision of a personal training experience to key organizational leaders; (4) development of a small grants program for ID/creation/promotion of PA opportunities.

Sloane, Diamant, Lewis et al., J Gen Int Med 2003;18:1-8

chc s african americans building a legacy of health process evaluation
CHC’s African Americans Building a Legacy of Health:Process evaluation

Measures:Primary dependent measure–level of organizational support for physical activity integration, as reflected in intensity of interventions selected for participation; Results: Nearly half (>100) of the 220 participating organizations demonstrated active support for physical activity integration, with >25% committed at the highest level of support.

Yancey, Lewis, Sloane et al., J Pub Health Mgmt Prac, 2004;10(2):118-123

chc s african americans building a legacy of health organizational wellness outcome evaluation
CHC’s African Americans Building a Legacy of Health:Organizational wellness outcome evaluation

Participants: 35 organizations, >700 staff/ members/clients, 1o overwt./obese black women

Measures:Primary dependent—BMI; Secondary—affect, F+V intake, PA level

Results (post-intervention f/u):

12-week intervention—dec. feelings of sadness/depr. (p=0.00), inc. F+V (+0.5 svgs, p=0.00), marginally dec. BMI (-0.5 kg/m2 , p=0.08)

6-week intervention (re-tooled)—inc. #days in which participated in vigorous PA (+0.3 days, p=0.00)

Yancey, Lewis, Guinyard et al., Health Prom Prac, 2006;7(3):233S-246S

california fit wic staff wellness training
California Fit WIC Staff Wellness Training

AIMS:

  • To provide skills and tools to influence workplace organizational practices and cultural norms to promote physical activity & healthy eating among staff
  • To provide skills and tools to influence staff to promote physical activity & healthy eating among WIC clients/families
california fit wic staff wellness training58
California Fit WIC Staff Wellness Training

Training sessions included:

  • Engagement around ubiquitous nature of the problem (“toxic” environment surrounding us)
  • Skills training in workplace practice change (e.g., movement breaks, walking meetings, leading co-workers to stairs vs. elev., healthy refreshments & identifying practical strategies to integrate PA (parking farther away, walking around children’s play area, carrying a basket vs. pushing a grocery cart)
  • Empowerment thru provision of tools, e.g., videos, audiotapes, bands, pedometers
california fit wic staff wellness training60
California Fit WIC Staff Wellness Training

Significant findings:

  • Increased perceived workplace support for staff PA (96 vs 58%, p=.002) and healthy food choices (85 vs 28%, p=.001)
  • Change in types of foods served during meetings (72 vs 24%, p=.002) & PA priority in workplace (96 vs 71%, p<.02)
  • Increased self-reported counseling behaviors with WIC parents promoting physical activity (64 vs 35%, p<.05) & sensitivity in handling weight-related issues (92 vs 58%, p<.01)

Crawford, Gosliner, Strode et al., Am J Public Health, 2004

community cost sharing
Community “Cost-Sharing”

1. Leverage funder and/or regulatory roles (foundation, especially government) to mandate healthy/fit workplace practices, with added resource allocation (e.g., 5%)

2. Change internal organizational culture (social norms) to create healthy/fit health & social services agency workplaces (“Walking the Talk”)

community cost sharing62
Community “Cost-Sharing”

“Healthy/fit” organizational PA promotion practicesinclude core & elective components, e.g., 10’ movement (or walking) breaks in meetings/ functions & at certain time(s) of day; walking meetings; stair prompts; leading employee groups to stairs in moving between work activities; restricted near parking; incentives for distant parking; model & reward fidgeting and lifestyle PA integration (e.g., less high heel & tie wearing, more pedometer wearing, formal recognition/kudos to those who jog or swim during lunchtime)

community cost sharing63
Community “Cost-Sharing”

3. Encourage local school officials to:

a. Train teachers of PE in SPARK-type models emphasizing coop. vs. compet., engaging all kids

b. Move student drop-off location as far away from door as possible, e.g., behind playing field, to maximize distance youth must walk to attend class

c. Incorporate Take 10!, Lift Off! or other exercise breaks into academic curriculum 2x/day, eg, math

d. Incorporate structured exercise breaks into PTA meetings, school board meetings, community dialogues, staff meetings & other gatherings to raise visibilty/priority of PA promotion in addressing childhood obesity

slide64

Community “Cost-Sharing”

“We must become the change

we wish to see in the world.”

--Mahatma Gandhi