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Calculating & Reporting Healthcare Statistics. Second Edition Chapter 8 Morbidity and Other Miscellaneous Rates. Infections. Morbidity State of being diseased or the number of sick persons or cases of disease in relation to a specific population May be infectious or have other causes

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calculating reporting healthcare statistics

Calculating & Reporting Healthcare Statistics

Second Edition

Chapter 8

Morbidity and Other Miscellaneous Rates

infections
Infections
  • Morbidity
    • State of being diseased or the number of sick persons or cases of disease in relation to a specific population
    • May be infectious or have other causes
      • For example, the presence of concomitant (taking place at the same time) chronic (of long duration) conditions may constitute comorbidity
      • Moreover, morbidity may be
        • preexisting (prior to admission to the hospital) or
        • iatrogenic, or occurring because of the patient’s treatment

©2006 All rights reserved.

infections3
Infections
  • Nosocomial Infections
    • Acquired in the hospital
      • Can be attributable to
        • Specific patient care units (PCUs)
        • Specific operations
        • Patients with specified disease
        • Medical staff units
        • Individual physicians
        • Hospital employees

©2006 All rights reserved.

infections4
Infections
  • Nosocomial Infection Rate Formula
    • Total number of nosocomial infections for a period X 100 / Total number of discharges, including deaths, for the same period

©2006 All rights reserved.

infection rate
Infection Rate
  • May be calculated separately for specific infections such as
    • Surgical wound infections
    • Puerperal infections, which occur immediately after childbirth
    • Infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, bloodstream, and so on
    • Complications that may results from an infection
    • Other types of complications that require special attention by medical staff and administration include
      • Wound disruptions
      • Decubitus ulcers
      • Postoperative hemorrhages
      • Adverse drug reactions

©2006 All rights reserved.

infection rate6
Infection Rate
  • Ratio of all infections to the number of discharges including deaths

©2006 All rights reserved.

infection rate7
Infection Rate
  • Formula
    • Total number of infections x 100/ Total number of discharges (including deaths) for the period

©2006 All rights reserved.

postoperative infections
Postoperative Infections
  • May be difficult to determine as it is not always evident if the patient entered the hospital with an infection or acquired one because of the surgical techniques used
    • The medical staff should provided guidance to the HIM practitioner and the infection control committee on what constitutes a clean surgical case and which infection should be considered a postoperative infection

©2006 All rights reserved.

postoperative infections9
Postoperative Infections
  • Two terms need to be considered
    • A surgical procedure
      • Any single, separate, systematic process upon or within the body that can be complete in itself
        • Normally is performed by a physician, dentist, or other licensed practitioner
        • Can be performed with or without instruments
        • Performed to restore disunited or deficient parts, remove diseased or injured tissues, extract foreign matter, assist in obstetrical delivery, or aid in diagnosis

©2006 All rights reserved.

postoperative infections10
Postoperative Infections
  • A surgical operation
    • One or more surgical procedures performed at one time for one patient via a common approach or for a common purpose

©2006 All rights reserved.

postoperative infection rate
Postoperative Infection Rate
  • Ratio of all infections in clean surgical cases to the number of surgical operations
    • Clean surgical case is one in which no infection existed prior to surgery

©2006 All rights reserved.

postoperative infection rate12
Postoperative Infection Rate
  • Formula
    • Number of infections in clean surgical cases for a period x 100/Number of surgical operations for the period

©2006 All rights reserved.

cesarean section
Cesarean Section
  • Most hospitals determine the percentage of deliveries that are performed by Cesarean Section (commonly called C-section) as compared to spontaneous or vaginal deliveries
  • There has been much attention given to high C-section rates by specific physicians, hospitals and areas of the country because of concerns about adverse effects to the mother and child
  • Additionally, it may be necessary to report C-section rates to accrediting agencies or the AMA for such reasons as residency programs

©2006 All rights reserved.

cesarean section14
Cesarean Section
  • Delivery
    • The process of delivering a liveborn infant or dead fetus (and placenta) by manual, instrumental, or surgical means
      • A pregnant mother who delivers has one delivery, however, she may have multiple births
        • For example, a woman who delivers a liveborn infant is counted as one delivery and one live birth
        • A woman who delivers liveborn twins is counted as one delivery and two live births
        • A woman who delivers a stillbirth is counted as one delivery and one fetal death

©2006 All rights reserved.

cesarean section15
Cesarean Section
  • Delivery
    • A woman may be admitted to the hospital for a condition of her pregnancy, however, she may not deliver her infant during that hospitalization
      • For example, a patient who is admitted in labor but later discovered that this is an instance of false labor would be classified as an obstetrics patient, not delivered

©2006 All rights reserved.

cesarean section rate
Cesarean Section Rate
  • Formula
    • Total number of C-sections performed in a period x 100.

Total number of deliveries in the period (including C-sections)

©2006 All rights reserved.

consultations
Consultations
  • The response by one healthcare professional to another healthcare professional’s request to provide recommendations and/or opinions regarding the care of a particular patient/resident
    • A patient’s attending physician may occasionally request a consultant (another physician or health care practitioner) to examine a patient and give an opinion as to his/her condition
    • A consultant will should also review the medical record and then prepare a consultation report that includes the findings of the examination and recommendations for treating the patient

©2006 All rights reserved.

consultation rate
Consultation Rate
  • Formula
    • Total number of patients receiving a consultation x 100/Total number of patients discharged

©2006 All rights reserved.

other rates
Other Rates
  • These are reported according to individual healthcare facility needs
  • May be reported for external agencies
  • The best rule of thumb is to use the “other rates” formula

©2006 All rights reserved.

other rates20
Other Rates
  • Formula
    • Number of times something occurred x 100/Number of times something could have occurred

©2006 All rights reserved.

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