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Mixed Emotions on:Basic Emotions, Relations Among Emotions, and Emotion-Cognition Relationsby Carroll E. Izard A Lead Discussion by Lauren Lloyd & Cristal Elwood
Emotions a la Evolutionary Biopsychological Perspectives • Emotions are called basic because of: • Their hypothesized role in evolution • Their biological and social functions • Their primacy in human development • Emotions are the basis for coping strategies and adaptation.
Differential Emotions Theory (DET) • An Evolutionary Biosocial Theory • Emotion is a motivational condition, a direct and immediate product of specific neural associations. • Emotions exist separate from cognition. • I do not think, therefore I feel.
DET Criteria for Basic Emotions • Assumed to have neural substrates. • Unique and universally recognized facial expressions for each emotion. • A unique feeling state for each emotion.
Emotion Experience • DET defines emotional experience as feeling. • DET holds that feeling states must be studied by multiple methods, not just self-report. • Psychophysiological indexes • Data from microanalytic coding of facial behavior • Behavioral ratings of coping actions.
Ortony & Turner (1990)Emotion from Another Perspective • Cognitive Theory – emotions are cognition dependent. • Activating appraisals • Subsequent desires • Intentions • I think, therefore I can feel. • Subject to cultural influences. • Researchers “cannot find basic emotions” because “we do not have, and probably cannot have, a satisfactory criterion of basicness”. (?)
Izard vs. Ortony & Turner • Emotions as a separate system vs. cognition induced. • Few basic emotions vs. Overinclusiveness of emotions. • Experiencing multiple emotions at one time vs. just naming a new emotion. (color mixing) • Facial Expressions • Both agree that primates also have facial expressions. • They disagree on how many specific different facial expressions there are, based on their differing views on defining of emotions.
Things that made us go Hmmmmmmmm….. • I feel sad, but do I know why? • Conscious vs. unconscious cognition. • Children only dislike food when they think it’s been contaminated? • Can we experience emotions without the underlying concept of why the emotion would be adaptive? • Which came first: the chicken or the egg? • Anger or distress? • Happy or excited? • Lonely or sad?
Other things that made us goHmmmmmm… • Cognitive independent or not? • Affective-cognitive structuring transform a “joy-image bond” to Love ? • How does one feel “uncanny” when one has never been “canned” in the first place? • Pairing of emotions vs. new emotion altogether.