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Emotions and Personality. Section 04/09/07. What are emotions?. Feelings?. Moods?. Seconds. Hours. Days. Time. Theories of emotion. What is the intuition?. Theories of emotion. What is the intuition?. Theories of emotion. Emotional invoking Stimuli. What is the intuition?.

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emotions and personality
Emotionsand Personality
  • Section 04/09/07
what are emotions
What are emotions?

Feelings?

Moods?

Seconds

Hours

Days

Time

theories of emotion
Theories of emotion

What is the intuition?

theories of emotion1
Theories of emotion

What is the intuition?

theories of emotion2
Theories of emotion

Emotional

invoking

Stimuli

What is the intuition?

theories of emotion3
Theories of emotion

Emotional

Reaction

What is the intuition?

theories of emotion4
Theories of emotion

James-Lange Theory

theories of emotion5
Theories of emotion

Reaction

Emotion

Event

Interpret

physiological

response

James-Lange Theory

theories of emotion6
Theories of emotion

Cannon-Bard theory

theories of emotion7
Theories of emotion

Event

Reaction

Emotion

Cannon-Bard theory

theories of emotion8
Theories of emotion

Cognitive Theory

theories of emotion9
Theories of emotion

Reaction

Emotion

Event

Interpret

the context

Cognitive Theory

theories of emotion10
Theories of emotion

The emergent synthesis

theories of emotion11
Theories of emotion

Reaction

Emotion

Event

Interpretation

The emergent synthesis

where do they come from
Where do they come from:

Nurture

Culture and Language!!

Anthropologists long argued that emotions are learned reactions dictated by our culture and language.

where do they come from1
Where do they come from:

Nurture

Schadenfreude(German):

Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes

where do they come from2
Where do they come from:

Nurture

Schadenfreude(German):

Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes

Not exactly an emotion

most in our culture

would admit to....

AND we have no word

for it.

where do they come from3
Where do they come from:

Nurture

Others

Enjoyment of other people’s misfortunes

Schadenfreude:

Amae(Japanese):

Dependence, immature/simple, spoiled

Jung(Korean):

Attachment, affection

slide21

Are faces special?

Ekman

Ekman showed these pictures of posed

actors to people in 21 different countries

slide22

Are faces special?

Ekman

What emotion are these people experiencing?

slide23

Are faces special?

Ekman

Everyone agreed on these: Happiness, Disgust, and Sadness

slide24

Are faces special?

Ekman

And most agreed on these: Surprise (20/21)

Anger (19/21) and Fear (18/21)

slide25

Are faces special?

Ekman

Even people from a non literate culture with little or no previous contact with other societies identified with similar expressions

slide26

Are faces special?

  • Demo: Emotions from facial expressions
  • You will see a number of faces, for each statement on your handout, pick the face that most clearly depicts the reaction you would expect in the situation described. You can choose the same face more than once.
slide28

Are faces special?

  • Results: Discussion
  • Did specific faces tend to be associated with the basic emotions?
  • Which had less agreement? Why?
  • Were the other situations associated with particular faces?
slide29

Are faces special?

  • Subject were directed to do two tasks while heart rate, skin temperature, and other autonomic measurements were monitored:
  • 1) Move facial muscles, with the help of a coach, into the prototypical emotion faces
  • 2) Imagine emotional events corresponding to the 6 emotion faces

Eckman, Levensen, and Friesen 1983

slide30

Are faces special?

  • Observed that Anger and Fear significantly increased heart rate in both tasks over Happiness, Surprise or Disgust
  • Similar autonomic responses to moving face muscles and to reliving emotional experience

Eckman, Levensen, and Friesen 1983

slide31

Are faces special?

Demo: Trying out the facial feedback hypothesis

Put on a happy face....

slide32

Faces in development

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide33

Faces in development

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide34

Faces in development

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide35

Faces in development

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide36

Faces in development

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide37

Faces in development

Social Referencing: babies use mothers expression to decide to go across cliff

Campos and Sternberg 1981

slide38

Where in the brain?

The Limbic Lobe

slide39

Where in the brain?

Associated with fear conditioning

slide40

Where in the brain?

  • Prefrontal Cortex:
  • Emotional Memory (Damasio 1994)
  • Anticipation of emotional events (Roberts et al 2004)
  • Empathy (Beer et al 2003)
slide41

Personality

What is it?

slide42

Personality

How we tend to act can

depend on who we

are around

slide43

Personality

Personality

traits

Personality

states

slide44

Personality

Personality: an explicit theory about how tend to act over time.

slide45

Personality

Is this a useful

concept?

Personality: an explicit theory about how tend to act over time.

slide46

Personality

DEMO!!!!

  • You will see 3 figures (A,B,C). I will read you statements about these three men
  • Decide which of three men the statement most likely applies to.
slide48

Personality

C

B

A

Implicit personality theory about body shape

and temperament

slide49

Personality

  • If you wanted to describe personality, or create a taxonomy, where would you begin?
slide50

Personality

Language!

  • The idea was that the most salient and important personality characteristics have been encoded in language.
slide51

Personality

  • Initial work by Allport and Odburt(1936)compiled all of the English terms in the dictionary as a basis set.
  • Subsequent work focused on factoring these down to a meaningful and universal set of personality descriptors
slide52

Personality

  • One of the most prominent models is the “Big 5” which measures 5 dimensions:
  • Openness (orginality, open-mindedness)
  • Conscientiousness (control, constraint)
  • Extraversion(energy, enthusiasm).
  • Agreeableness (affection, altruism)
  • Neuroticism (easily upset, stress)
slide53

Personality

  • Social-Cognitive Theory
  • A different approach to personality based on research done by Albert Bandura.
  • Three Main components (1) Observational learning (2) locus of control (3) recipricol determinism
slide54

Personality

  • Observational learning: The bobo doll experiment
  • Children watched a video of adults beating up a doll
  • When allowed to play with the doll on their own, those that observed the adult beating the doll, did so as well
slide55

Personality

Sockeroo!

  • Observational learning: The bobo doll experiment
  • Children watched a video of adults beating up a doll
  • When allowed to play with the doll on their own, those that observed the adult beating the doll, did so as well
slide56

Personality

  • Observational learning: The bobo doll experiment
  • Children watched a video of adults beating up a doll
  • When allowed to play with the doll on their own, those that observed the adult beating the doll, did so as well

Yeah!

Sockeroo!

oooo!

slide57

Personality

  • 80% of the kids repeat the behavior
  • 40% will continue to do so, even 8 months later (Isom 1998)
slide58

Personality

  • Reciprocal determinism: The environment affects us, but we can have an impact on the environment and ourselves too!
  • Opposed to the direct learning theories of behaviorism
slide59

Personality

  • Locus of control
  • Am I in control of my environment or does the environment control me?
  • Explains motivation
slide60

Personality

DEMO!!!!

  • On the handout are a series of situations that can happen to people. There are two alternative explanations for why each situation occurred.
  • Imagine each situation happening to you (even if it would never happen).
  • Decide which alternative, A or B, you prefer.
slide61

Personality

  • Score 1 point for answer A on items 1,4,7,13,15, and 17, and 0 for answer B.
  • Score 1 point for answer B on each item 2,5,8,9,12 and 18. Score a 0 for answer A on these items.
  • 3,6,10,11,14, and 16 were items used to evaluate social desirability: answer A in items 3,11,14,16 were associated with a need to be perceived positively by others, and used to camouflage the other questions
  • High scores >> internal locus of control
slide62

How does it develop?

  • Psychodynamic Theory
  • Freud proposed that the personality is made up of three main constructs:
  • Id, Ego, and the Superego
slide63

How does it develop?

  • The id
  • Like a screaming baby. The part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle
  • The drives and desires that center around satisfying needs and wants
slide64

How does it develop?

  • The Superego
  • The expectations of proper behavior. Exemplified by parents and authority figures
  • Acts as our conscious, and “punishes” the personality for thoughts that are “bad”
slide65

How does it develop?

  • The Ego
  • The conscious self
  • Operates on the reality principle
slide66

How does it develop?

  • Personality develops as the ego tries to satisfy the id, and at the same time, attempts to keep the superego from punishing it.
  • Development is an interplay between the three components
slide67

How does it develop?

  • The id has two main drives: The Sex and Death instincts
  • For Freud, these were implicit, buried deep in the personality, and NOT consciously knowable. Like a seething, bubbling cauldron wanting to explode!
  • The Ego’s job was to keep the lid on!
slide68

How does it develop?

  • What is wrong with Freud’s theory?
  • Testability
  • Reliability of the data the theory is based on.
slide69

How does it develop?

  • Humanistic Psychology
  • Developed out of clinical practice and experience.
  • Postulated that the self-concept (or how we see and believe others see us) was an important motivating force in developing the personality

Carl Rogers

slide70

How does it develop?

  • Only one personality drive: self actualizing principle.
  • Pushes us to more fully engage in the world and live the “good life:” one rich in new open new experiences.
  • Some similarities with the ideas in Maslow’s Hierarchy

Carl Rogers

slide71

How does it develop?

  • Self-actualization was driven by Organismic Valuing, or the idea that experience and evolution provided every organism with an ability to know what was good for it
  • Society led us astray by creating conditions of worth: specific conditions which we must fulfill to be considered human beings.
  • Ex. Slavery, Political/Job Hierarchy, Salary
  • Unconditional Positive regard

Carl Rogers

slide72

How does it develop?

• "Experience is, for me, the highest authority. The touchstone of validity is my own experience. No other person's ideas, and none of my own ideas, are as authoritative as my experience. It is to experience that I must return again and again, to discover a closer approximation to truth as it is in the process of becoming in me. Neither the Bible nor the prophets -- neither Freud nor research --neither the revelations of God nor man -- can take precedence over my own direct experience. My experience is not authoritative because it is infallible. It is the basis of authority because it can always be checked in new primary ways. In this way its frequent error or fallibility is always open to correction."

--From On Becoming a Person, 1961

Carl Rogers

slide73

Are faces special?

  • muscles control facial expression
  • Inerverated by two different nerve systems: voluntary and involuntary
slide75

Innate emotions?

Lab reared monkeys

are not particularly

bothered by snakes

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide76

Innate emotions?

Wild monkeys, however

are a different matter..

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide77

Innate emotions?

eek! eek! eek!

a snake. Bongo afraid.

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide78

Innate emotions?

eek! eek! eek!

a snake. Bongo afraid.

eek! eek! eek!

a snake. Bongo afraid.

An interesting thing happens if a lab reared monkey observes a wild monkey’s fear reaction to a snake

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide79

Innate emotions?

He will now also exhibit fear reactions to snakes

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide80

Innate emotions?

Will even work with toy snakes

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985

slide81

Innate emotions?

But will not work with non-snakes, even if the lab reared monkey observes identical fear behavior to a non snake stimuli

Mineka and Cook 1984, 1985