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Understanding Teacher Labor Markets: An Update. Don Boyd Hamp Lankford University at Albany University at Albany Susanna Loeb Jim Wyckoff Stanford University University at Albany. Teacher Labor Markets and the Behavior of Teachers. How are the qualifications of teachers sorted?

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understanding teacher labor markets an update
Understanding Teacher Labor Markets:An Update

Don Boyd Hamp Lankford

University at Albany University at Albany

Susanna Loeb Jim Wyckoff

Stanford University University at Albany

teacher labor markets and the behavior of teachers
Teacher Labor Markets and the Behavior of Teachers
      • How are the qualifications of teachers sorted?
      • How do teacher’s careers progress?
      • What is the geography of teacher labor markets?
      • What determines the initial match of teachers to jobs?
      • Who enters teaching?
      • What factors affect teacher quit and transfer decisions?
  • Several papers are available at www.teacherpolicyresearch.org .
sorting of teachers
Sorting of Teachers
  • What is the distribution of teacher qualifications within and between districts?
  • How do these qualifications vary with student attributes?
  • Teachers are sorted such that low-performing, non-white and poor students are most likely to be taught by the least qualified teachers.
what explains these between and within district differences in the qualifications of teachers
What Explains These Between- and Within-District Differences in the Qualifications of Teachers?

What are the choices key in explaining the sorting of teachers?

  • Initial job matches
  • Job transfers
  • Quits

What are the key determinants of each of these choices?

  • Preferences of teachers
  • Factors considered by school officials
  • Institutional constraints
teacher qualifications by proportion failing student achievement test school level 2000
Teacher Qualifications by Proportion Failing Student Achievement Test, School Level, 2000
1995 cohort of nyc teachers failing certification exam by quartile of student performance
1995 Cohort of NYC Teachers Failing Certification Exam by Quartile of Student Performance

Initial match is 43% of gap after 6 years; transfers and quits make up 57% (Quartile 4 – Quartile 1)

percent of 1995 cohort of nyc teachers failing certification exam by district geography
Percent of 1995 Cohort of NYC Teachers Failing Certification Exam by District Geography

Initial match is 75% of gap after 6 years , transfers and quits 25% (NYC Urban – NYC Suburban)

the geography of teacher labor markets
The Geography of Teacher Labor Markets

What defines the geography of the regions within which teachers look for jobs? How big are teacher labor markets?

How does geographical proximity affect the job choices of teachers?

distance from home to first job first time teachers 1999 2002
Distance from Home to First Job, First Time Teachers, 1999-2002

85 percent of teachers take a first job within 40 miles of home

distance from home to first job for those who go away to college first time teachers 1999 2002
Distance from Home to First Job for Those Who Go Away to College, First Time Teachers, 1999-2002

Most who go away to college come home to take a first job.

determinants of employment location of new teachers
Determinants of Employment Location of New Teachers
  • Multivariate analysis of location choice among 16 regions
  • (separate urban and suburban areas of six MSAs and three rural areas).
  • Distance from high school has largest effect on choice of region.
    • Teachers are 4 times more likely to locate in a region that is
    • five miles from home as one that is 40 miles from home.
  • The effect of distance from college is smaller.
  • Similarity of region is important, even holding distance constant.
    • A teacher having a suburban home is 4.5 times as likely
    • to teach in that suburban area as opposed to teaching
    • in the adjacent urban district.
urbanicity of home and urbanicity of first job first time teachers 1999 2002
Urbanicity of Home and Urbanicity of First Job, First Time Teachers, 1999-2002
  • Urban districts are net importers of teachers.
  • The geographical distribution of teachers and their
  • preferences for job proximity disadvantage urban
  • schools.
initial matches of teachers and jobs
Initial Matches of Teachers and Jobs
  • What preferences by teachers and employers determines the initial match of teachers to jobs?
  • What additional monetary and non-monetary compensation would be needed to attract sufficient numbers of highly qualified teachers to traditionally hard to staff schools?
slide17
Estimating Compensating Differentials(salary premiums needed to attract more qualified teachers to hard-to-staff schools)

The traditional approach has been to employ hedonic wage models.

Problems with the hedonic approach:

  • Conceptual (theoretical) problems.
  • Empirical results typically are inconsistent.

These difficulties have lead us to develop an alternative approach that accounts for important features of teacher labor markets.

two sided matching model
Two-sided matching model

Initial results are very encouraging.

  • Disentangle the factors affecting the separate choices of teachers and school officials responsible for hiring.
  • Preliminary estimates of some compensating differentials
  • Inferences regarding what attributes of teachers are important to school officials in their hiring decisions?
some major findings and implications
Some Major Findings and Implications
  • There is extensive sorting of teachers such that the lowest-achieving, minority and poorest students typically are taught by the least qualified teachers.
  • Initial job matches, transfers and quits each significantly contribute to this sorting.
  • The unfolding retirement of large numbers of current teachers is likely to exacerbate current difficulties in attracting highly able teachers to hard-to-staff schools.
  • Teachers' preferences for job proximity and the geographical distribution of teachers disadvantage urban schools and underscore the importance of teacher preparation.
  • Many questions remain regarding how best to attract more qualified teachers to hard-to-staff schools.
slide21

Identifying the Next Generation of School Leaders

  • Hamp Lankford, Ray O’Connell and Jim Wyckoff
  • University at Albany, SUNY
  • We appreciate the advice and support of Dr. Kevin McGuire, Leadership Project, NYSED
slide24

Research Questions

  • Why did they seek administrative certification?
  • What were their experiences in searching for administrative positions?
  • What are their career aspirations?
  • Are they interested in pursuing school leadership positions?
  • Do they feel prepared for an administrative position?
  • What conditions would they assume an administrative position?
slide25

Data

  • Mail survey of all 7809 individuals with administrative certification, not older than 50 who are working NYS public schools and not currently serving as principals or superintendents.
  • Useable response rate of 39 percent.
  • Results reported here are for 1170 individuals who are currently non-administrators; separate results for those currently serving in administrative positions are presented in the paper.
slide26

What Was Your Primary Reason for Securing

Administrative Certification?

(By Gender and Age)

slide27

Have You Ever Applied for an

Administrative Position?

(By Gender and Age, Proportion Yes)

slide28

For How Many Years Following Certification

Did You Apply for Administrative Positions?

(by Gender and Age)

slide29

Were You Offered an Administrative

Position You Turned Down?

(by Gender and Age, Proportion Yes)

slide30

What Factors Affected Your Decision to Turn

Down an Administrative Position?

(by Gender)

slide31

If Ever Applied for Administrative Positions,

Have You Stopped?

(by Gender and Age, Proportion Yes)

slide32

If Stopped Applying for

Administrative Positions, Why?

(by Gender and Age)

slide33

If Stopped Applying for

Administrative Positions, Why (con’t)?

slide34

What Are Your Feelings About Pursuing

First Administrative Position

(by Gender and Age)

slide35

Are There Conditions Under Which You Would be Willing to Assume First Administrative Position?

(by Gender and Age, Proportion Yes)

slide36

Factors that Would Encourage You to Consider

First Administrative Position

(by Gender and Age)

slide37

Minimum Additional Compensation Required to Induce You to Take First Administrative Position

(by Gender and Age)

slide38

Implications

  • Although there a large number of individuals certified to be school leaders, only 27 percent of non-administrators continue to apply for administrative positions.
  • Compensation, working conditions and stress are factors frequently cited for reduced interest in administrative positions.
  • However, most individuals indicate that they would be interested in administrative positions under the right conditions.
  • Compensation, being encouraged by an administrator, and being mentored are factors that would induce individuals to consider administrative positions.