TAKS Objective 5. Earth and Space Systems Part II. TAKS Overview. 12 Questions out of 60. You need at least 9 right to pass this objective. Study this section!!!!! Think of it as history. Here is what you should know about Objective 5: Characteristics of the Universe Seasons
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Earth and Space Systems
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCarbon Cycle
Interactive Carbon Cycle
doesn’t stay in one place. It is always on the move!
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentNitrogen Cycle
Homes, farms, ranches, forests, small towns, big cities and more can make up watersheds. Some cross county, state, and even international borders. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. Some are millions of square miles, others are just a few acres. Just as creeks drain into rivers, watersheds are nearly always part of a larger watershed.
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentWatershed
Rocks are divided into 3 types: IGNEOUS,SEDIMENTARY, and METAMORPHIC
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentRock Cycle
Ice Wedging (Free-Thaw)
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentWeathering
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentErosion
There are three main types of Rocks
A. Igneous Rocks
B. Sedimentary Rocks
C. Metamorphic Rocks
Each type of rock is formed in different locations and tell us a lot about the processes that have happened in the past.
Rock formation occurs in the lithosphere.
Different rocks form in different locations
A rock on the surface may have once been 20 km underground.
All rocks on earth are a part of a large process called the Rock Cycle. In this cycle, rocks are created and changed by different processes.
The Rock Cycle
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentIgneous Rock
Most sedimentary rocks form under water. Most of the earth has been covered by water some time in the past. 70% of the earth is covered by water now. So sedimentary rocks are common all over the world. Sedimentary rocks are often rich in FOSSILS. Some examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, and shale. Sandstone is formed from grains of sand pressed tightly together
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentSedimentary Rock
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentMetamorphic Rock
A volcanic eruption occurs. Magma rises up the volcano’s vents and soon reaches the surface. What type of rock will form due to this event?
A Igneous rock
B Sedimentary rock
C Metamorphic rock
D No rocks will form
THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS CREATED:
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentGreenhouse Effect
When fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) are burned in power plants, homes, and cars, CO2 (a GREENHOUSE GAS) is released into the air. When garbage, paper and trees are burned more CO2 is released into the air. All of this excess CO2 traps more heat just above the earth’s surface and is adding to the GLOBAL WARMING problem for the entire earth.
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentGreenhouse Effect and Global Warming
This lake looks ok, but it is dead.
No fish life in this lake.
Acid rain kills trees and aquatic life.
S + O2 SO2(g)
This reaction occurs in combustion of sulfur rich coals in factories or in volcanoes
Formation of Acid Rain
SO2(g) + H2O (l) H2SO4(l) This reaction occurs in clouds
This acid rain then falls to the ground and enters the soil and water systems.
In areas where the bedrock is limestone (CaCO3) this acid rain is neutralized.
H2SO4(l) + CaCO3 CO2(g) + CaSO4(aq) + H2O (l)
All of these will probably result when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase EXCEPT —
F increased plant growth
G elevated animal reproductive rates
H greater atmospheric pressures
J higher average annual temperatures
Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornados, flooding, wildfires, and droughts are additional examples of catastrophic events that change the Earth’s surface.
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCatastrophic Events on Earth
Intensity of hurricanes is measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale and is determined by sustained wind speeds
Hurricanes are the largest storms on Earth. It moves with counterclockwise movement and winds reach up to more than 250 km/hr.
Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure that form over warm ocean water of at least 80 degrees.
Evidence suggests that dinosaurs became extinct when a large meteorite struck in the area of the Yucatán Peninsula. Scientists hypothesize that this enormous impact killed all the dinosaurs, even those on the other side of Earth, because the —
F debris thrown into the atmosphere blocked sunlight
G heat flash from the impact immediately vaporized all
H impact blasted the atmosphere surrounding Earth
J intense heat completely boiled away the oceans