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TAKS Objective 5. Earth and Space Systems Part II. TAKS Overview. 12 Questions out of 60. You need at least 9 right to pass this objective. Study this section!!!!! Think of it as history. Here is what you should know about Objective 5: Characteristics of the Universe Seasons

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taks objective 5

TAKS Objective 5

Earth and Space Systems

Part II

taks overview
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentTAKS Overview
  • 12Questions out of 60.
  • You need at least 9 right to pass this objective.
  • Study this section!!!!! Think of it as history.
  • Here is what you should know about Objective 5:
    • Characteristics of the Universe
    • Seasons
    • Phases of the Moon
    • Earth’s Land Features
    • Earth’s Atmosphere
    • Earth’s Cycles
    • Impact of Humans on Earth
    • Impact of Catastrophic Events on Earth
earth s cycles
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentEarth’s Cycles
  • Rock Cycle: Rocks move from igneous to sedimentary to metamorphic and back again.
  • Water Cycle: Water evaporates from the ocean and other surfaces. Water then condenses into clouds and later falls back to the ground as precipitation. Ground and surface water collect in a watershed and drain off into the ocean.
  • Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles : Involve living things: for example, plants create organic compounds; animals eat plants; carbon is released from their remains, wastes and respiration.
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle: The movement of carbon, in its many forms, between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere.

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Carbon Cycle

Interactive Carbon Cycle

carbon cycle1
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCarbon Cycle
  • Carbon is an element - C. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon

doesn’t stay in one place. It is always on the move!

  • Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants. In the atmosphere, carbon is attached to oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2). With the help of the Sun, through the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is pulled from the air to make plant food from carbon.
  • Carbon moves from plants to animals. Through food chains, the carbon that is in plants moves to the animals that eat them. Animals that eat other animals get the carbon from their food too.
  • Carbon moves from plants and animals to the ground. When plants and animals die, their bodies, wood and leaves decay bringing the carbon into the ground. Some becomes buried miles underground and will become fossil fuels in millions and millions of years.
  • Carbon moves from living things to the atmosphere. Each time you exhale, you are releasing carbon dioxide gas (CO2) into the atmosphere. Animals and plants get rid of carbon dioxide gas through a process called respiration.
  • Carbon moves from fossil fuels to the atmosphere when fuels are burned. When humans burn fossil fuels to power factories, power plants, cars and trucks, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Each year, five and a half billion tons of carbon is released by burning fossil fuels. That ’ s the weight of 100 million adult African elephants! Of the huge amount of carbon that is released from fuels, 3.3 billion tons enters the atmosphere and most of the rest becomes dissolved in seawater.
  • Carbon moves from the atmosphere to the oceans. The oceans, and other bodies of water, soak up some carbon from the atmosphere. Animals that live in the ocean use the carbon to build their skeletons and shells.
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle: the process by which NITROGEN is removed from the atmosphere, “ fixed ” in the soil by bacteria, incorporated into other living things, and then released back into the atmosphere.

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Nitrogen Cycle
water cycle
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentWater Cycle
  • Water Cycle (the HYDROLOGIC Cycle): the continuous process by which water moves from Earth ’ s surface to the atmosphere and back, passing through the living and nonliving parts of the environment.
A watershed is an area of land that catches rain and snow and drains or seeps into a marsh, stream, river, lake or groundwater.

Homes, farms, ranches, forests, small towns, big cities and more can make up watersheds. Some cross county, state, and even international borders. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. Some are millions of square miles, others are just a few acres. Just as creeks drain into rivers, watersheds are nearly always part of a larger watershed.

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rock cycle
Rocks are constantly being formed, worn down and then formed again. This is known as the ROCK CYCLE. It is like the water cycle but it takes a lot longer. It takes thousands and millions of years for rocks to change.

Rocks are divided into 3 types: IGNEOUS,SEDIMENTARY, and METAMORPHIC

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Rock Cycle
WEATHERING is the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals at or near the Earth's surface.



Thermal (Physical)


Ice Wedging (Free-Thaw)

Exfoliation (flaking)

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EROSION is the wearing away of land or soil by the action of wind, water, or ice.




Glacier (ice)

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Dallas Independent School District Science Department


There are three main types of Rocks

A. Igneous Rocks

B. Sedimentary Rocks

C. Metamorphic Rocks

Each type of rock is formed in different locations and tell us a lot about the processes that have happened in the past.

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Rock formation occurs in the lithosphere.

Different rocks form in different locations

A rock on the surface may have once been 20 km underground.

All rocks on earth are a part of a large process called the Rock Cycle. In this cycle, rocks are created and changed by different processes.

igneous rock
IGNEOUS means made from fire or heat. When volcanoes erupt and the liquid rock comes up to the earth's surface, then new igneous rock is made. When the rock is liquid & inside the earth, is called MAGMA When the magma gets hard inside the crust, it turns into GRANITE. Most mountains are made of granite. It cools very slowly and is very hard. When the magma gets up to the surface and flows out, like what happens when a volcano erupts, then the liquid is called LAVA. Lava flows down the sides of the volcano. When it cools & turns hard it is called obsidian, lava rock or pumice. Igneous rocks form when molten lava (magma) cools and turn to solid rock. The magma comes from the Earth ’ s core which is molten rock . The core makes up about 30% of the Total Earth Mass (31.5%)

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Igneous Rock



sedimentary rock
The earth's surface is constantly being eroded. This means that rocks are broken up into smaller pieces by weathering agents such as wind, water, and ice. These small pieces of rock turn into pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay. They tumble down rivers and streams. These pieces settle in a new place and begin to pile up and the sediments form flat layers. Over a long period of time, the pieces become pressed together and form solid rock called SEDIMENTARY ROCK.

Most sedimentary rocks form under water. Most of the earth has been covered by water some time in the past. 70% of the earth is covered by water now. So sedimentary rocks are common all over the world. Sedimentary rocks are often rich in FOSSILS. Some examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, and shale. Sandstone is formed from grains of sand pressed tightly together

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Sedimentary Rock



metamorphic rock
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed . The word comes from the Greek "meta" and "morph" which means to change form. Metamorphic rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary, but due to movement of the earth's crust, were CHANGED. If you squeeze your hands together very hard, you will feel heat and pressure. When the earth's crust moves, it causes rocks to get squeezed so hard that the heat causes the rock to change. Marble is an example of a sedimentary rock that has been changed into a metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks are the least common of the 3 kinds of rocks. Metamorphic rocks are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been transformed by great heat or pressure .

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Metamorphic Rock


checkpoint question 5 6 earth s cycles
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCheckpoint Question 5.6, Earth’s Cycles

A volcanic eruption occurs. Magma rises up the volcano’s vents and soon reaches the surface. What type of rock will form due to this event?

A Igneous rock

B Sedimentary rock

C Metamorphic rock

D No rocks will form

impacts of humans on earth
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentImpacts of Humans on Earth


  • Global Warming: Burning of fossil fuels has increased carbon dioxide in the air which traps solar energy.
  • Greenhouse Effect: Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane gas) trap solar energy and cause a gradual temperature increase.
  • Ozone Layer Depletion: this layer absorbs much of the Sun ’ s ultraviolet radiation, but is being destroyed by CFSs (chlorofluorocarbons).
  • Pesticide Contamination: Pesticides can poison water, soil and the food we eat.
  • Acid Rain: Air pollutants turn into acids that are highly toxic.
  • Loss of Non-RenewableResources such as oil & natural gas (fossil fuels).
  • Destruction of Natural Habitats for commercial, industrial, agricultural, mining, and development purposes.
greenhouse effect
The GREENHOUSE EFFECT is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60ºF colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as GREENHOUSE GASES.

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Greenhouse Effect
greenhouse effect and global warming
One form of air pollution is the production of too much carbon dioxide CO2and other greenhouse gases. These greenhouse gases trap heat in earth’s atmosphere producing the GREENHOUSE EFFECT . Normally the greenhouse effect keeps the earth at a temperature that supports life. But human activities are increasing the amounts of some of the greenhouse gases , CO2 . Scientists believe that this increase in greenhouse gases is causing GLOBAL WARMING- AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURES ALL AROUND THE WORLD.

When fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) are burned in power plants, homes, and cars, CO2 (a GREENHOUSE GAS) is released into the air. When garbage, paper and trees are burned more CO2 is released into the air. All of this excess CO2 traps more heat just above the earth’s surface and is adding to the GLOBAL WARMING problem for the entire earth.

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Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
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Acid Rain

This lake looks ok, but it is dead.

No fish life in this lake.

Acid rain kills trees and aquatic life.

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S + O2 SO2(g)

This reaction occurs in combustion of sulfur rich coals in factories or in volcanoes

Formation of Acid Rain

SO2(g) + H2O (l) H2SO4(l) This reaction occurs in clouds

This acid rain then falls to the ground and enters the soil and water systems.

In areas where the bedrock is limestone (CaCO3) this acid rain is neutralized.

H2SO4(l) + CaCO3 CO2(g) + CaSO4(aq) + H2O (l)

checkpoint 5 7 impact of human s on earth
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCheckpoint 5.7, Impact of Human’s on Earth

All of these will probably result when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase EXCEPT —

F increased plant growth

G elevated animal reproductive rates

H greater atmospheric pressures

J higher average annual temperatures

catastrophic events on earth
Catastrophic events, like a meteor crash, can lead to the extinction of an entire species. An endangered species (such as bald eagles) is protected by government agencies because it is close to extinction (the condition in which there are no more living members of a species).

Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornados, flooding, wildfires, and droughts are additional examples of catastrophic events that change the Earth’s surface.

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Catastrophic Events on Earth
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentTornado
  • A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that usually touches the ground
  • A rotating updraft of air in a thunderstorm cloud may form a spinning column called a mesocyclone, which eventually can touch down on the ground as a tornado
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentHurricanes

Intensity of hurricanes is measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale and is determined by sustained wind speeds

Hurricanes are the largest storms on Earth. It moves with counterclockwise movement and winds reach up to more than 250 km/hr.

Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure that form over warm ocean water of at least 80 degrees.

checkpoint 5 8 catastrophic events on earth
Dallas Independent School District Science DepartmentCheckpoint 5.8, Catastrophic Events on Earth

Evidence suggests that dinosaurs became extinct when a large meteorite struck in the area of the Yucatán Peninsula. Scientists hypothesize that this enormous impact killed all the dinosaurs, even those on the other side of Earth, because the —

F debris thrown into the atmosphere blocked sunlight

G heat flash from the impact immediately vaporized all


H impact blasted the atmosphere surrounding Earth

into space

J intense heat completely boiled away the oceans