TAKS Objective 5

TAKS Objective 5

TAKS Objective 5

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1. TAKS Objective 5 Coach Smith Waco High Chemistry 2006-2007

2. Objective 5 Gravitational Potential Energy PE = mgh Acceleration due to Gravity g = 9.8 m/s2 • What is the approximate difference in gravitational potential energy of the two shaded boxes? • 19 J • 39 J • 59 J • 79 J

3. Gravitational Potential Energy PE = mgh Acceleration due to Gravity g = 9.8 m/s2 • What is the approximate difference in gravitational potential energy of the two shaded boxes? • 19 J • 39 J • 59 J • 79 J Box 1 = 2.0 kg x 58.8 9.8 m/s2 x 3.0 m Box 2 = - 2.0 kg x 19.6 9.8 m/s2 x 1.0 m 39.2 = Difference

4. Gravitational Potential Energy PE = mgh Acceleration due to Gravity g = 9.8 m/s2 • What is the approximate difference in gravitational potential energy of the two shaded boxes? • 39 J 58.8 - 19.6 39.2 = Difference

5. Objective 5 • A hockey player pushed a puck toward the opposite side of a level ice rink. The player expected the puck to continue all the way across the ice, but the puck slowed and stopped before reaching the other side. Which of these best explains why the puck failed to slide all the way to the opposite side? • The puck’s temperature changed. • An upward force acted on the puck. • The puck’s momentum remained unchanged. • An opposing force acted on the puck.

6. A hockey player pushed a puck toward the opposite side of a level ice rink. The player expected the puck to continue all the way across the ice, but the puck slowed and stopped before reaching the other side. Which of these best explains why the puck failed to slide all the way to the opposite side? • An opposing force acted on the puck.

7. Objective 5 • Which of these is an advantage of producing electricity using solar power plants rather than using coal-fired power plants? • Solar power plants can operate for about 10 hours per day. • Solar power plants can produce variable amounts of energy. • Solar power plants produce fewer pollutants. • Solar power plants require continuous sunlight.

8. Which of these is an advantage of producing electricity using solar power plants rather than using coal-fired power plants? • Solar power plants produce fewer pollutants.

9. Objective 5 • The transfer of heat by the movement of air currents in Earth’s atmosphere is an example of – • Conduction • Convection • Radiation • Fusion

10. The transfer of heat by the movement of air currents in Earth’s atmosphere is an example of – • Convection

11. Objective 5 • The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier. Which pattern will be formed after the waves pass through the opening in the barrier? A. C. B. D.

12. The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier. Which pattern will be formed after the waves pass through the opening in the barrier? B.

13. Objective 5 • Which of these devices uses the sun’s energy directly? • Windmill • Hydroelectric dam • Nuclear power plant • Photovoltaic cell

14. Objective 5 • Which of these devices uses the sun’s energy directly? • Photovoltaic cell

15. Objective 5 Kinetic energy = ½ (mass x velocity2) KE = mv2/2 • A 1-kilogram ball has a kinetic energy of 50 joules. The velocity of the ball is – • 5 m/s • 10 m/s • 25 m/s • 50 m/s

16. √100 J = √v2 Kinetic energy = ½ (mass x velocity2) KE = mv2/2 Divide each side by 1 Multiply each side by 2 50 J = 1v2/2 50 J (2) = 1v2/2 (2) 100 J / 1 = 1v2 / 1 Square root of each side 10 J = v • A 1-kilogram ball has a kinetic energy of 50 joules. The velocity of the ball is – • 5 m/s • 10 m/s • 25 m/s • 50 m/s

17. √100 J = √v2 Kinetic energy = ½ (mass x velocity2) KE = mv2/2 Divide each side by 1 Multiply each side by 2 50 J = 1v2/2 50 J (2) = 1v2/2 (2) 100 J / 1 = 1v2 / 1 Square root of each side 10 J = v • A 1-kilogram ball has a kinetic energy of 50 joules. The velocity of the ball is – • 10 m/s

18. Objective 5 Car velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 0 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Momentum = mass x velocity p = mv • The pictures show how an air bag functions in a collision. How much momentum in kg m/s does the air bag absorb from the crash-test dummy if all the crash-test dummy’s momentum is absorbed by the air bag? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on the answer document.

19. Car velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 0 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Momentum = mass x velocity p = mv • The pictures show how an air bag functions in a collision. How much momentum in kg m/s does the air bag absorb from the crash-test dummy if all the crash-test dummy’s momentum is absorbed by the air bag? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on the answer document.

20. Car velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 6.3 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Car velocity = 0 m/s Driver velocity = 0 m/s Driver mass = 100 kg Momentum = mass x velocity p = mv • The pictures show how an air bag functions in a collision. How much momentum in kg m/s does the air bag absorb from the crash-test dummy if all the crash-test dummy’s momentum is absorbed by the air bag? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on the answer document. 100 kg x 6.3 m/s = 630 kg m/s

21. Objective 5 • A surface wave generated by an earthquake was recorded at Seismic Station 1. Forty seconds later the same wave was recorded at Seismic Station 2. What accounts for the time difference? • The origin of the wave is closer to Seismic Station 1. • The speed of the wave decreases with distance • The wavelength is longer at Seismic Station 2. • The wave frequency increases when the wave passes through soil.

22. A surface wave generated by an earthquake was recorded at Seismic Station 1. Forty seconds later the same wave was recorded at Seismic Station 2. What accounts for the time difference? • The origin of the wave is closer to Seismic Station 1.

23. Objective 5 • Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater? • 16 N • 32 N • 88 N • 100 N

24. Acceleration = finial velocity – initial velocity a = vf - vi time t Force = Mass x Change in Velocity F = mv time t Force = Mass x Acceleration F = ma Acceleration • Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater? • 16 N • 32 N • 88 N • 100 N

25. F = mv t F = 48 x 2.5 1.2 F = 120 1.2 F = 100 N • Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater? • 16 N • 32 N • 88 N • 100 N

26. F = mv t F = 48 x 2.5 1.2 F = 120 1.2 F = 100 N • Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater? • 100 N

27. Objective 5 Speed = Distance Time • A cyclist moves at a constant speed of 5 m/s. If the cyclist does not accelerate during the next 20 seconds, he will travel – • 0 m • 4 m • 50 m • 100 m

28. Objective 5 Speed = Distance Time d 100 20 5 = x v t • A cyclist moves at a constant speed of 5 m/s. If the cyclist does not accelerate during the next 20 seconds, he will travel – • 0 m • 4 m • 50 m • 100 m

29. Speed = Distance Time d 100 = • A cyclist moves at a constant speed of 5 m/s. If the cyclist does not accelerate during the next 20 seconds, he will travel – • 100 m

30. A company has decided to market itself as environmentally friendly. If the company is going to sell calculators, the use of which energy source would produce the fewest by-products and the least waste? • Rechargeable batteries • Solar cells • Dry-cell batteries • Tesla coils

31. A company has decided to market itself as environmentally friendly. If the company is going to sell calculators, the use of which energy source would produce the fewest by-products and the least waste? • Solar cells

32. Objective 5 • A guitar player is seated next to a piano. The piano player strikes an E key on the piano. The guitarist reports that this causes the E string on his guitar to vibrate. What is the name of this phenomenon. • Polarization • Resonance • Reflection • Diffraction

33. Objective 5 • A guitar player is seated next to a piano. The piano player strikes an E key on the piano. The guitarist reports that this causes the E string on his guitar to vibrate. What is the name of this phenomenon. • Resonance

34. Objective 5 • A 0.50 kg ball with a speed of 4.0 m/s strikes a stationary 1.0 kg target. If momentum is conserved, what is the total momentum of the ball and target after the collision? • 0.0 kgm/s • 0.5 kgm/s • 1.0 kgm/s • 2.0 kgm/s

35. Objective 5 p 0.5 4 2.0 = x m v • A 0.50 kg ball with a speed of 4.0 m/s strikes a stationary 1.0 kg target. If momentum is conserved, what is the total momentum of the ball and target after the collision? • 0.0 kgm/s • 0.5 kgm/s • 1.0 kgm/s • 2.0 kgm/s

36. Objective 5 • A 0.50 kg ball with a speed of 4.0 m/s strikes a stationary 1.0 kg target. If momentum is conserved, what is the total momentum of the ball and target after the collision? • 2.0 kgm/s

37. Objective 5 • This picture shows a small section of a solar power plant. Which of these decreases the energy production at such power plants? • Cloudy skies • Ozone in the air • Hot weather • Low humidity

38. Objective 5 • This picture shows a small section of a solar power plant. Which of these decreases the energy production at such power plants? • Cloudy skies

39. Laser Light Striking a DVD Objective 5 A • When a DVD is read, laser light touches the DVD surface and is then measured at location A. What allows light to return to location A after striking the DVD surface? • Conduction • Refraction • Magnification • Reflection

40. Laser Light Striking a DVD Objective 5 A • When a DVD is read, laser light touches the DVD surface and is then measured at location A. What allows light to return to location A after striking the DVD surface? • Reflection

41. Objective 5 • An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the truck’s engine do, compared to every other engine in its class? • Produce fewer emissions • Operate more efficiently • Perform work faster • Accelerate longer

42. Objective 5 • An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the truck’s engine do, compared to every other engine in its class? • Perform work faster

43. Objective 5 • An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt began to move. Which characteristic of waves does the movement of the salt best demonstrate? • Echo formation • Diffraction • Resonance • Specular reflection

44. Objective 5 • An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt began to move. Which characteristic of waves does the movement of the salt best demonstrate? • Resonance