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TAKS Objective 3. Coach Smith Waco High Chemistry 2006-2007. Objective 3. Which of these conditions is caused by bacteria? AIDS Seasonal allergies Dental cavities Colds. Which of these conditions is caused by bacteria? Dental cavities. Objective 3.

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taks objective 3

TAKS Objective 3

Coach Smith

Waco High Chemistry

2006-2007

slide2

Objective 3

  • Which of these conditions is caused by bacteria?
    • AIDS
    • Seasonal allergies
    • Dental cavities
    • Colds
slide4

Objective 3

  • A study shows that 40% to 100% of raw poultry is contaminated by disease-causing bacteria. Which of the following activities provides people the best protection from these bacteria?
    • Rinsing dishes thoroughly.
    • Eating a balanced diet daily.
    • Visiting a doctor regularly.
    • Cooking foods properly.
slide5

A study shows that 40% to 100% of raw poultry is contaminated by disease-causing bacteria. Which of the following activities provides people the best protection from these bacteria?

    • Cooking foods properly.
slide6

Objective 3

  • Which of the following is the most specific group used to classify organisms?
    • Kingdom
    • Class
    • Genus
    • Order
slide7

Objective 3

  • Which of the following is the most specific group used to classify organisms?
    • Genus
slide8

Objective 3

Characteristics of Some Lizards

  • Live mainly in hot, dry climates
  • Release very little water
  • Excrete waste in the form of solid uric acid, which contains very little water.
  • Which of the following is best supported by the information shown above?
    • These lizards evolved in arid habitats.
    • Modern lizards drink more water than their ancestors did.
    • These lizards cool themselves by evaporation.
    • Modern lizards excrete more water than their ancestors did.
slide9

Characteristics of Some Lizards

  • Live mainly in hot, dry climates
  • Release very little water
  • Excrete waste in the form of solid uric acid, which contains very little water.
  • Which of the following is best supported by the information shown above?
    • These lizards evolved in arid habitats.
slide10

Objective 3

  • Enzymes allow viruses to insert their genetic material into the host cell’s DNA. The virus benefits from this action by –
    • Acquiring the traits of the host cell.
    • Causing the host cell to produce viruses.
    • Introducing random deadly mutations into the host cell.
    • Turning the host cell into a virus.
slide11

Objective 3

  • Enzymes allow viruses to insert their genetic material into the host cell’s DNA. The virus benefits from this action by –
    • Causing the host cell to produce viruses.
slide12

Objective 2

  • Streptococcus infection in a person’s throat can cause pain and fever. Streptococcus can be controlled by antibiotics. Streptococcus is a –
    • Virus
    • Bacterium
    • Protozoan
    • Fungus
slide13

Objective 2

  • Streptococcus infection in a person’s throat can cause pain and fever. Streptococcus can be controlled by antibiotics. Streptococcus is a –
    • Bacterium
slide14

Objective 3

  • The diagram above is intended to show relationships in an ecosystem. What do the arrows represent?
    • The direction of population migration.
    • Differences in dietary habits.
    • Progressively smaller organisms.
    • The direction of energy flow.
slide15

Objective 3

  • The diagram above is intended to show relationships in an ecosystem. What do the arrows represent?
    • The direction of energy flow.
slide16

Objective 3

  • An increase in greenhouse gases is considered harmful because it –
    • Allows more heat to be trapped in the lower atmosphere.
    • Depletes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
    • Releases energy trapped inside Earth.
    • Destroys light energy that plants need for photosynthesis.
slide17

Objective 3

  • An increase in greenhouse gases is considered harmful because it –
    • Allows more heat to be trapped in the lower atmosphere.
slide18

Objective 3

  • Insecticides help humans compete with insects for a resource. Which resource is most likely to be preserved for humans through the use of insecticides?
    • Sunlight
    • Water
    • Food
    • Air
slide19

Objective 3

  • Insecticides help humans compete with insects for a resource. Which resource is most likely to be preserved for humans through the use of insecticides?
    • Food
slide20

Objective 3

  • Two competing species can thrive in the same community if they have –
    • The same habitat
    • Different niches
    • Similar diets
    • Different life spans.
slide22

Objective 3

Information About Sendai Virus

  • Some infants and children are infected with human parainfluenza virus type 1, also known as HPIV-1.
  • A vaccine against HPIV-1 is made of a low dose of Sendai virus.
  • Sendai virus has a similar structure to HPIV-1.
  • Sendai virus makes mice sick but does not make humans sick.
  • Why is Sendai virus used as a vaccine against HPIV-1?
    • In alters the protein coat of HPIV-1
    • It makes cells chemically unrecognizable to HPIV-1.
    • If forms a protective barrier against HPIV-1.
    • It triggers the production of antibodies that fight HPIV-1.
slide23

Objective 3

Information About Sendai Virus

  • Some infants and children are infected with human parainfluenza virus type 1, also known as HPIV-1.
  • A vaccine against HPIV-1 is made of a low dose of Sendai virus.
  • Sendai virus has a similar structure to HPIV-1.
  • Sendai virus makes mice sick but does not make humans sick.
  • Why is Sendai virus used as a vaccine against HPIV-1?
    • It triggers the production of antibodies that fight HPIV-1.
slide24

Objective 3

V

X

Z

W

U

Y

R

T

S

Time

Q

P

  • The diagram shows relationships of selected species over time. According to this information, which of these species is expected to have the greatest phenotypic difference from the ancestral species?
    • Species Q
    • Species R
    • Species T
    • Species U
slide25

V

X

Z

W

U

Y

R

T

S

Time

Q

P

  • The diagram shows relationships of selected species over time. According to this information, which of these species is expected to have the greatest phenotypic difference from the ancestral species?
    • Species U
slide26

Objective 3

  • Some species of kelp anchor themselves to the seafloor. These species have small air sacs, called air bladders that raise the top of the kelp to the water’s surface. What advantage do air bladders give the kelp?
    • They allow the kelp to obtain more salt from the water.
    • They prevent the kelp from breaking during a storm.
    • They allow kelp leaves to receive greater amounts of sunlight.
    • They provide the kelp with protection from herbivores.
slide27

Objective 3

  • Some species of kelp anchor themselves to the seafloor. These species have small air sacs, called air bladders that raise the top of the kelp to the water’s surface. What advantage do air bladders give the kelp?
    • They allow kelp leaves to receive greater amounts of sunlight.
slide28

Objective 3

  • A tick feeding on the blood of a dog is an example of –
    • Commensalism
    • Parasitism
    • Neutralism
    • Mutualism
slide30

Objective 3

  • Which conclusion is best supported by the information in the diagram?
    • Volcanic eruptions were common in the area.
    • The area was once a marine environment.
    • Organisms in the area reproduced frequently.
    • Consumers once outnumbered producers in the area.
slide31

Objective 3

  • Which conclusion is best supported by the information in the diagram?
    • The area was once a marine environment.
slide32

The Collared Peccary

Bobcats

Coyotes

F

H

Peccaries

Insects

Insects

Plants

Mice

Plants

Bobcats

Plants

Coyotes

Cacti

Insects

Coyotes

Mice

Plants

Peccaries

G

J

Peccaries

Peccaries

Insects

Bobcats

Mice

Coyotes

The collared peccary is often mistaken for a pig. It has a short pig-like snout and crushing molars. The peccary has a mass of 10–20 kg and a shoulder height of about 50 cm.

The collared peccary is omnivorous, eating mostly roots, seeds, fruit, cacti, and occasionally insects and mice. Peccaries travel in herds of 6–30 animals. The natural enemies of the peccary are bobcats and coyotes.

  • Which of these is a food web based on the relationships described above?
slide33

The Collared Peccary

Mice

Plants

Coyotes

Peccaries

G

Insects

Bobcats

The collared peccary is often mistaken for a pig. It has a short pig-like snout and crushing molars. The peccary has a mass of 10–20 kg and a shoulder height of about 50 cm.

The collared peccary is omnivorous, eating mostly roots, seeds, fruit, cacti, and occasionally insects and mice. Peccaries travel in herds of 6–30 animals. The natural enemies of the peccary are bobcats and coyotes.

  • Which of these is a food web based on the relationships described above?
slide34

Objective 3

  • The diagram shows several phases of the nitrogen cycle. Which of the following describes the most likely effect of removing some plants from the area by using chemical herbicides?
    • The rate of erosion of rocks on the ground would be slowed.
    • The flow of necessary nutrients would be disrupted.
    • The ability of plants to complete photosynthesis would be increased.
    • The infiltration of water into the ground would be halted.
slide35

Objective 3

  • The diagram shows several phases of the nitrogen cycle. Which of the following describes the most likely effect of removing some plants from the area by using chemical herbicides?
    • The flow of necessary nutrients would be disrupted.
slide38

Objective 3

  • About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes?
    • It is given off as heat.
    • It is stored as vitamins.
    • It is used in reproduction.
    • It is used in protein synthesis.
slide39

Objective 3

  • About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes?
    • It is given off as heat.
slide40

Objective 3

Cholera-causing bacteria belong to the genus Vibrio. Some species of Vibrio cause diseases in chickens and humans. However, some species have mutualistic relationships with fish and other marine life.

  • Which of these is the best example of a mutualistic relationship in an aquatic environment?
    • Some fish can survive repeated infections by harmful bacteria.
    • Some fish have bacteria living in their digistive tract that help the fish digest food.
    • Some bacteria are present in aquatic food chains in which fish are secondary consumers.
    • Some bacteria are aquatic decomposers that recycle nutrients useful to fish.
slide41

Objective 3

Cholera-causing bacteria belong to the genus Vibrio. Some species of Vibrio cause diseases in chickens and humans. However, some species have mutualistic relationships with fish and other marine life.

  • Which of these is the best example of a mutualistic relationship in an aquatic environment?
    • Some fish have bacteria living in their digistive tract that help the fish digest food.
slide42

Objective 3

About 10,000 years ago two populations of tassel-eared squirrels were separated from each other. Today these squirrels are so different that they are unable to interbreed when brought together.

Tassel-eared squirrel

Southern

isolation

Northern

isolation

Abert’s squirrel

Kaibab squirrel

  • Which of the following explains this phenomenon?
    • Competition
    • Extinction
    • Predation
    • Speciation
slide43

Objective 3

About 10,000 years ago two populations of tassel-eared squirrels were separated from each other. Today these squirrels are so different that they are unable to interbreed when brought together.

Tassel-eared squirrel

Southern

isolation

Northern

isolation

Abert’s squirrel

Kaibab squirrel

  • Which of the following explains this phenomenon?
    • Speciation
slide44

Objective 3

  • Which of these does a virus need in order to multiply?
    • Chloroplasts from a host cell.
    • A host cell to provide oxygen for the virus.
    • New ADP from a host cell.
    • A host cell to replicate the virus’s DNA
slide45

Objective 3

  • Which of these does a virus need in order to multiply?
    • A host cell to replicate the virus’s DNA
slide46

Objective 3

  • The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900’s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have –
    • Learned to avoid the virus.
    • Moved away from infected areas.
    • Undergone a change in diet.
    • Developed resistance to the virus.
slide47

Objective 3

  • The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900’s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have –
    • Developed resistance to the virus.
slide48

Objective 3

  • Cows and other ruminants are herbivorous animals. Their died includes cellulose which must be fermented before it can be digested. Which of these aid in the fermentation of cellulose in a cow’s digestive system?
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Algae
    • Viruses
slide49

Objective 3

  • Cows and other ruminants are herbivorous animals. Their died includes cellulose which must be fermented before it can be digested. Which of these aid in the fermentation of cellulose in a cow’s digestive system?
    • Bacteria
slide50

Objective 3

  • Which of these events is most likely to cause a widespread influenza outbreak?
    • People in northern regions are affected by weather patterns.
    • The influenza virus is recognized by host immune systems.
    • Global warming causes increased winter precipitation.
    • People lack immunity to a new strain of flu virus.
slide51

Objective 3

  • Which of these events is most likely to cause a widespread influenza outbreak?
    • People lack immunity to a new strain of flu virus.
slide52

Original Population

Objective 3

Equal frequency of black and white alleles

Allele frequency differs

New population increase

New population increase

Chance event reduces population size

Chance event reduces population size

  • The model shows a demonstration a student prepared using black and white marbles to show how populations of organisms can change. Which of the following concepts is best illustrated by this demonstration?
    • Evolution of a predatory species
    • Genetic drift accompanying natural selection.
    • Environmentally induced genetic mutations.
    • Immunity from virulent microorganisms.
slide53

Original Population

Objective 3

Equal frequency of black and white alleles

Allele frequency differs

New population increase

New population increase

Chance event reduces population size

Chance event reduces population size

  • The model shows a demonstration a student prepared using black and white marbles to show how populations of organisms can change. Which of the following concepts is best illustrated by this demonstration?
    • Genetic drift accompanying natural selection.
slide54

Objective 3

C

D

  • Which diagram best shows how the amount of stored energy changes going up a food chain?

Tertiary consumers

(largemouth bass)

Secondary consumers

(bluegills)

Primary consumers

(grasshoppers)

Primary producers

(plants)

Tertiary consumers

(largemouth bass)

Secondary consumers

(bluegills)

Primary consumers

(grasshoppers)

Primary producers

(plants)

A

Sun’s

energy

Sun’s

energy

Tertiary consumers

(largemouth bass)

Secondary consumers

(bluegills)

Primary consumers

(grasshoppers)

Primary producers

(plants)

Tertiary consumers

(largemouth bass)

Secondary consumers

(bluegills)

Primary consumers

(grasshoppers)

Primary producers

(plants)

B

Sun’s

energy

Sun’s

energy

slide55

Objective 3

  • Which diagram best shows how the amount of stored energy changes going up a food chain?

Tertiary consumers

(largemouth bass)

Secondary consumers

(bluegills)

Primary consumers

(grasshoppers)

Primary producers

(plants)

A

Sun’s

energy

slide56

Objective 3

Epiphytes

  • Epiphytes (example: some orchids) live on trees so they can receive more sunlight.
  • Epiphytes have aerial roots that absorb water and minerals from rainwater.
  • • Epiphytes do not affect the trees on which they live.
  • Which of these best describes the relationship between epiphytes and trees?
    • Parasitism
    • Migration
    • Commensalism
    • Predation
slide57

Objective 3

Epiphytes

  • Epiphytes (example: some orchids) live on trees so they can receive more sunlight.
  • Epiphytes have aerial roots that absorb water and minerals from rainwater.
  • • Epiphytes do not affect the trees on which they live.
  • Which of these best describes the relationship between epiphytes and trees?
    • Commensalism
slide58

Objective 3

Phytoplankton

Krill

Humpback

whales

Herring

Puffins

Jellyfish

Codfish

Sea

turtles

Sharks

  • In this diagram of a marine food web, which term describes the sea turtles?
    • Aquatic herbivores
    • Autotrophic producers
    • Third-level consumers
    • Primary decomposers
slide59

Objective 3

Phytoplankton

Krill

Humpback

whales

Herring

Puffins

Jellyfish

Codfish

Sea

turtles

Sharks

  • In this diagram of a marine food web, which term describes the sea turtles?
    • Third-level consumers
slide60

Objective 3

  • Birds and reptiles are similar in that they are vertebrates and lay eggs. They differ in that reptiles have teeth and birds have beaks. Some birds do possess teeth. However, these teeth are present only in the embryonic stage. Which conclusion is best supported by the presence of teeth in bird embryos?
    • Birds and reptiles share a common ancestor.
    • Modern reptiles are the ancestors of modern birds.
    • Birds and reptiles eat similar types of food.
    • Ancestors of reptiles had beaks similar to those of birds.
slide61

Objective 3

  • Birds and reptiles are similar in that they are vertebrates and lay eggs. They differ in that reptiles have teeth and birds have beaks. Some birds do possess teeth. However, these teeth are present only in the embryonic stage. Which conclusion is best supported by the presence of teeth in bird embryos?
    • Birds and reptiles share a common ancestor.
slide62

Objective 3

  • Plant leaves have a waxy covering called a cuticle. When some plants are stressed by lack of water, their cuticle increases in thickness. What does this action demonstrate?
    • Alternation of generations in plants.
    • Structural response to the environment.
    • Differentiation of vascular tissue in plants.
    • Genetic mutation induced by the environment.
slide63

Objective 3

  • Plant leaves have a waxy covering called a cuticle. When some plants are stressed by lack of water, their cuticle increases in thickness. What does this action demonstrate?
    • Structural response to the environment.
slide64

Objective 3

  • Milkweed plants have green leaves.
  • Milkweed plants produce a milky sap containing compounds that taste bad to some animals.
  • The milkweed bug is bright orange and red and feeds on the milkweed plant.
  • The compounds in the milkweed sap accumulate in the milkweed bug but do not harm it.
  • Which of the following best explains how the milkweed bug’s coloration helps it avoid being eaten by birds.
    • Birds become confused by the bug’s coloration, so the bug has time to escape.
    • Birds associate the bug’s coloration with its bad taste and avoid eating it.
    • Birds are unable to locate the bug’s head, so the bug can escape.
    • Birds cannot locate the bug because it appears to be a part of the plant.
slide65

Objective 3

  • Milkweed plants have green leaves.
  • Milkweed plants produce a milky sap containing compounds that taste bad to some animals.
  • The milkweed bug is bright orange and red and feeds on the milkweed plant.
  • The compounds in the milkweed sap accumulate in the milkweed bug but do not harm it.
  • Which of the following best explains how the milkweed bug’s coloration helps it avoid being eaten by birds.
    • Birds associate the bug’s coloration with its bad taste and avoid eating it.
slide66

Objective 3

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia enter the root hairs of bean plants. The bacteria are located in small root structures called nodules. The plants provide energy to the bacteria, and in return, the plants receive nitrogen for growth from the bacteria.

  • According to the information in the box, which of these best describes the relationship between rhizobia and bean plants.
    • Parasitism
    • Opportunism
    • Commensalism
    • Mutualism
slide67

Objective 3

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia enter the root hairs of bean plants. The bacteria are located in small root structures called nodules. The plants provide energy to the bacteria, and in return, the plants receive nitrogen for growth from the bacteria.

  • According to the information in the box, which of these best describes the relationship between rhizobia and bean plants.
    • Mutualism
slide68

Objective 3

  • Which of the following explains why antibiotics can treat flu-like symptoms caused by bacteria but are ineffective against the flu??
    • Flu is a response to an antigen.
    • Antibiotics require time to work.
    • Antibiotics strengthen antibodies.
    • Flu is caused by a virus.
slide69

Objective 3

  • Which of the following explains why antibiotics can treat flu-like symptoms caused by bacteria but are ineffective against the flu??
    • Flu is caused by a virus.
slide70

Objective 3

Marine Food Pyramid

Q

  • The diagram represents different levels of a marine food pyramid. Between which two levels is the greatest amount of energy transferred?
    • R and Q
    • S and R
    • T and S
    • U and T

R

S

T

U

slide71

Objective 3

Marine Food Pyramid

Q

  • The diagram represents different levels of a marine food pyramid. Between which two levels is the greatest amount of energy transferred?
    • U and T

R

S

T

U

slide72

Objective 3

  • A gray whale develops in its mother’s uterus for about a year.
  • The whale calf has hair on its face when it is born.
  • As the calf grows, the hair is lost, and barnacles attach themselves to its skin.
  • Which statement is best supported by the information above?
    • Barnacles develop within the whale uterus.
    • Whales descended from ancestors with hair.
    • Fluid inside the uterus is colder than seawater.
    • Adult whales will possess more hair in the future.
slide73

Objective 3

  • A gray whale develops in its mother’s uterus for about a year.
  • The whale calf has hair on its face when it is born.
  • As the calf grows, the hair is lost, and barnacles attach themselves to its skin.
  • Which statement is best supported by the information above?
    • Whales descended from ancestors with hair.
slide74

Objective 3

Hawks

Shrews

Caterpillars

Leaves

  • The diagram above represents a pyramid of biomass. Which of the following explains why a pyramid shape is useful in this representation?
    • Most of the food consumed is recycled at every trophic level.
    • Energy from the producers is equally distributed in all trophic levels.
    • Decomposers receive a small amount of energy from the biomass.
    • Eech trophic level supports a lesser amount of biomass.
slide75

Objective 3

Hawks

Shrews

Caterpillars

Leaves

  • The diagram above represents a pyramid of biomass. Which of the following explains why a pyramid shape is useful in this representation?
    • Eech trophic level supports a lesser amount of biomass.
slide76

Objective 3

Plant Characteristics

  • Grows in clusters and low to the ground
  • Able to grow under a layer of snow
  • Carries out photosynthesis at temperatures below freezing
  • Flowers very quickly and briefly during summer
  • Produces small, moisture-retaining leaves
  • The box lists some characteristics of a plant that has adapted to conditions in its environment. To which type of environment is the plant best adapted?
    • Desert
    • Grassland
    • Tundra
    • Rain Forest
slide77

Objective 3

Plant Characteristics

  • Grows in clusters and low to the ground
  • Able to grow under a layer of snow
  • Carries out photosynthesis at temperatures below freezing
  • Flowers very quickly and briefly during summer
  • Produces small, moisture-retaining leaves
  • The box lists some characteristics of a plant that has adapted to conditions in its environment. To which type of environment is the plant best adapted?
    • Tundra
slide78

Objective 3

  • Lactose is a naturally occuring sugar found in milk. Some dairy products, such as yogurt, may contain live bacteria. These products are useful to people who lack the ability to digest lactose. What does this information demonstrate?
    • Bacteria raise the acidity of processed foods.
    • Some bacteria interfere with digestion.
    • Bacteria can prevent insulin production.
    • Some bacteria are beneficial to human health.
slide79

Objective 3

  • Lactose is a naturally occuring sugar found in milk. Some dairy products, such as yogurt, may contain live bacteria. These products are useful to people who lack the ability to digest lactose. What does this information demonstrate?
    • Some bacteria are beneficial to human health.